REPORT ON ANNUAL CESMA COUNCIL MEETING
IN KOTOR, MONTENEGRO ON 4TH MAY 2018
This year the CESMA Annual General Assembly was organized by the Montenegro Shipmasters’ Association in the ancient city of Kotor, Montenegro, a good example of a well conserved medieval city, full of Roman and Venetian influences and a rich maritime past. This became evident after a visit of the local maritime museum by the CESMA representatives, who had come all the way to Kotor to attend the CESMA AGA 2018. The visit preceded the council meeting in the afternoon.
The council meeting of the yearly CESMA Assembly, discussing mainly husbandry matters, took place in the small Church of Saint Paul, another example of ancient Kotor. The meeting was attended by representatives of CESMA member associations from 12 EU and future EU nations. Shipmasters from host country Montenegro, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Spain, Ireland, Germany, France, Belgium, Slovenia, Bulgaria and The Netherlands attend the meeting.
The CESMA council was shortly welcomed by the host, Captain Mario Pilastro, president of the Montenegro Shipmasters Association. Since last year, there were a few changes in the composition of the council. Captain J. Cortada Bover represented this year the ACCMM of Barcelona, Spain, as Captain Badell Serra was otherwise occupied. Captain Wolf von Pressentin again represented VDKS, Germany, after his recovery
According to reports from the general secretary on the financial situation and the activities in 2017, including representations by CESMA (council/ board) members, the year 2017 can be considered as extraordinary, caused by the health condition of the general secretary, who usually takes care of the greater part of CESMA representations. The relevant financial advantage will be added to the reserves, stabilizing the situation for the immediate future.
The important issue for this council meeting was the resignation of deputy president Captain
Roberto Surez, elected in 2016 in Cork, Ireland. On second thoughts, he could not combine his tasks
in his professional career with the activities of the deputy presidency of CESMA. For this reason an
election was necessary for a new deputy president. Three associations had presented candidates,
making an election procedure necessary. As members of the board were also acting as council
members (entitled to vote), the election procedure was handled by the hosting association, the
Montenegro shipmasters. After two rounds of voting, necessary for a normal majority, Captain
Dimitar Dimitrov was elected as deputy president. Captain Dimitrov has a long experience in the
CESMA council and will present himself further on in this issue of the CESMA NEWS.
Membership increased with two associations. The Asociacion Vizcaina de Capitanes de la Marina
Mercante (AVCCMM) from Bilbao, Spain, rejoined CESMA as a full member after some years of
consideration. The Helsinki Shipmasters’
Association from Finland became observer
member, as the first in this category. Being
a smaller association, the Helsinki shipmasters
choose for observer membership,
giving it the possibility to be fully involved
in CESMA technical matters concerning
the maritime profession and industry.
We are pleased to welcome the first
association in Scandinavia as our member.
CESMA now counts 20 shipmasters’
associations in 15 European maritime
nations. A number of associations is still
Communication with members and informing other parties has improved by the new lay-out of the
CESMA NEWS and the re-installation of the website. Other means were discussed but face book was
considered not applicable due to safety of information issues. We keep looking for means to reach
younger seafarers and interest them for association membership. Good cooperation with other
maritime associations and organisations such as IFSMA, The Nautical Institute, EMSA and ECSA are
important and will be continued as they could influence discussions and decisions on maritime safety
and security being made at IMO in London. Concluding the Council Meeting. The president Capt.
Hubert Ardillon thanked all participants for their input in the discussions and decisions.
The day was concluded with a visit to the maritime faculty in Kotor. The Dean of the faculty
explained about the aims and possibilities of the faculty. The visit was concluded with a visit to the
simulator which is very important for training purposes of the students.
INTRODUCTION OF NEW CESMA DEPUTY PRESIDENT
As newly elected Deputy President of CESMA during the 23rd CESMA
AGA, I want to thank CESMA members for their vote and to assure you
that I’ll make all I can do to promote our organization as professional
organization of European shipmasters.
As council member I joined CESMA in 2007,
being Chairman of the Board of Bulgarian
Shipmasters’ Association and since then I
attended CESMA AGA’s during all the years up
to now. Our association is not big but we try
to unite our colleagues from Bulgaria and to
express their voice in the European family of
shipmasters. We face problems, shared by all
colleagues, that young officers and shipmasters
are no longer interested in
participation of professional organizations as
they have internet, facebook, twitter and all
the other means of communication and they
think they do not need membership of
organization like ours.
During the CESMA AGA in Riga 2017, I established a face book group “CESMA” and tried to promote
a new way of communication between our members in order to be more attractive and closer to our
young members. We have to be in line with the new trends of the industry as automation,
computerization, digitalization, etc. At the same time I reconfirm my opinion, as expressed in the
previous edition of CESMA News of the necessity to keep traditional navigational skills and especially
mentality of maritime professionals that even on board automated, computerized and digitalized
ships we still need our safety culture and readiness to act in any situation of failure of electronic
systems, computers on board ships and other equipment and systems accordingly. Going further, we
have to transfer that safety culture to the maritime industry stakeholders and future shore based
captains navigating autonomous ships from shore and computers which will run autonomous ships.
In the last ten years, CESMA remained a purely professional organization, independent from
business or trade union influence. In that way, our opinion on industry or professional matters is
valuable as all members are non-profitable organizations and so we put safety at sea as our primary
goal without commercialization. At the same time we have to be careful to keep the attractiveness of
our organization and to be in favor of the daily life of shipmasters. Good example was the
intervention of our secretary general, captain Fredrik Van Wijnen in Panama and his attendance
during the trial of Bulgarian shipmaster Svetlozar Sobadzhiev, accused of drug trafficking in Panama.
Support of our members in their daily life on board as well as providing actual professional
information is the key factor to attract more colleagues to join our associations and to retain them
during their professional career.
TO BECOME MARITIME AMBASSADOR,
CAPT. DIMITROV MEETS MR. KITACK LIM,
IMO SECRETARY GENERAL
Being Deputy President, my intention is to assist in the activities of our CESMA board and our
Secretary General, representing CESMA on regional, European and international level. Our ambitious
number of resolutions requires a lot of efforts from either the CESMA board or all member
associations to get into practice our ideas and to be in assistance to all member shipmasters. Latest
discussions about training of young seafarers and necessity of harmonization and standardization of
different approaches in European countries and consolidation of our opinion, express how our
common interests could unite us. (Capt. Dimitar Dimitrov)
They describe the slowness of the Italian authorities in
renewing essential certificates as a bureaucratic disorder
which is putting seafarers’ jobs in danger. Therefore they
request for an urgent action to be taken by the Italian
transport ministry. The problems have been raised in the
European Parliament by Italian MEP Mrs Laura Ferrara,
highlighting concerns that the gap between international
regulations and stricter standards imposed by Italian
legislation is making it extremely complicated for the
country’s seafarers to update and renew certificates.
European transport commissioner Mrs. Violeta Bulc commented that the European Commission
has initiated an infringement procedure against the state of Italy as a result of ”outstanding
deficiencies in the application of a EU directive covering maritime education and training
programmes, including problems with course designs, review and approval, recognition of
certificates, certification and endorsement for engineer officers at management level and
requirements for certification”.
As a result there is a very real risk that thousands of Italian seafarers could lose their jobs as a
consequence of problems with the issue of internationally approved sea safety certificates. The
Italian ministry of transport’s slowness in organising and approving national courses is creating
serious difficulties. It is unacceptable that many seafarers have already paid 1.000 euro for an update
course or 2.000 euro for a basic certificate and are still waiting for further developments.
The European Commission has also accused Italy of failing to provide full information on what steps
it has taken to implement the EU directive on the Maritime Labour Convention and has warned that
it may refer the case to the European Court of Justice.
RESOLUTIONS FROM 23rd CESMA AGA ON 5 th MAY 2018 AT THE CATTARO HOTEL IN KOTOR, MONTENEGRO.
Resolution nr. 1: Criminalisation of seafarers.
The 23th Annual General Assembly in Kotor, again noted that the problem of criminalisation of seafarers and of shipmasters in particular, continues to be a matter of great concern. CESMA urgently requests ship owners and/or operators to always provide legal assistance for masters, serving on their ships, in case of an incident as a consequence of which they are detained by local authorities, until, at least, a verdict has been pronounced. Moreover masters are urgently advised to consider taking a risk insurance.
Resolution nr. 2: Piracy.
The Assembly again discussed the problem of piracy against ships in various parts of the world, with attacks on ships in the West Africa area still frequent and violent, while piracy in seas around Somalia seems to increase lately. CESMA no longer resists the use of armed security teams, either military or private but also advocates the use of non-violent measures which become more and more sophisticated as an alternative, in combination with BMP 4 practices. Under all circumstances the authority of the master should be efficaciously maintained, except when fire-arms have to be used. CESMA also insists on exact rules of engagements to be observed under all circumstances.
Resolution nr. 3: Fatigue and safe manning.
The Assembly again discussed the problem of fatigue in the maritime industry. The requirement of a minimum of three certified bridge watch keepers, including the master, on each seagoing vessel of 500 GT and more, is still supported by CESMA, although we see improvement due to better controls by some flag states (Spain) and Port State Control officers. It continues to urge Port State Control officers to intensify verification of work and rest periods during shipboard inspections. CESMA Supports the results of the Martha project.
Resolution no. 4: Safety of roro- and large passenger ships.
The Assembly again discussed the safety of roro- and large passenger ships as well as car carriers. Disembarking a great number of passengers and crew in an emergency situation continues to be a great concern. Damage stability as a result of flooded decks and/or holds caused by an accident, is still not sufficiently observed, also with regard to new buildings. Recently ordered vessels seem to show improvements due to lessons learned from the “Costa Concordia” accident.
Resolution no. 5: Mooring accidents.
The Assembly again expresses its concern about the increase of serious mooring accidents on board and ashore. Reasons discussed are the increase in sizes of vessels, lay-out of harbours, mooring equipment used and the ability and number of crew at the mooring stations. Another issue is disturbances in communication due to language problems.
Resolution nr. 6: Employment of EU seafarers.
Following the growing shortage of EU officers, employed on EU flag ships, also due to complicated procedures by some administrations regarding training and certification, the Assembly again urges EU administrations to support their respective seafarers by recognizing certificates issued by all EU administrations and enforcing simpler issue/renewal procedures for certificates of EU officers. CESMA again appeals to EU ship owners to create opportunities for young EU officers to complete their practical education and training and obtain their certificates. In this way maritime knowledge and experience within the EU maritime industry can be maintained. All efforts should be employed to interest young people in the EU to choose for a maritime career.
Resolution nr. 7: Illegal immigrants in the Mediterranean.
The Assembly again noted with concern the situation in the Mediterranean where illegal immigrants try to reach Europe by using unseaworthy craft which sometimes, due to overcrowding and bad condition, require assistance from merchant navy vessels nearby. According to the SOLAS Convention, ships are obliged to render assistance and take the immigrants on board. This could lead to dangerous situations whereby the crew is outnumbered by the quantity of immigrants. Moreover their intentions and medical condition are unknown, as most ships have no professional medical staff on board. As a consequence, vessel and crew could be endangered. The Assembly again wants to convey its concern to the European Commission and Parliament, as well as the IMO, in this respect.
Resolution nr. 8: Future of simulator training in the EU maritime industry.
The Assembly again underlines the importance of simulator training in the maritime industry. However it urges EU administrations to standardise exchanging of practical education and training periods by simulator training as “sea time equivalent”.
Resolution nr. 9: Reduction of paperwork on board.
The Assembly urgently requests governments and authorities to intervene in reducing the many documents to be completed by vessels before and between entering ports, as they severely increase the working load on board, particularly of the master, who is primarily responsible for the safe navigation of the vessel, especially in confined waters.
Resolution nr. 10: Safe construction of Very Large Ore Carriers (VLOC’s).
The Assembly, noting with concern the large number of seafarers missing at shipwrecks of VLOC’s, asks international maritime authorities, including the European Union, to not close their eyes on a kind of fatality that could convict seafarers aboard this vessel type to death. It urgently requests the European Union and its member states to push the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to create clear legislation on VLOC’s. This includes the prohibition of conversion of Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC’s) into VLOC’s, as well as their current operation. The Assembly also expressed concern about the liquefaction of certain bulk cargoes, such as bauxite ore, on bulk carriers, causing this type of vessels to suddenly capsize during their voyage and sink with all crew on board lost.
Resolution nr. 11: Decrease of traditional navigational skills.
The Assembly noted again, with great concern, the decrease of traditional navigational skills among younger shipmasters and officers on board. Recent development of electronic equipment facilitates position fixing by satellite systems. However latest breaches in cyber security, such as jamming of GPS, raise the importance of a backup system. CESMA calls for relevant action by the European Commission and IMO to maintain proper legislation regarding safe watch keeping and use of satellite systems together with traditional navigational skills. In this process, CESMA encourages maritime and qualification institutes to pay attention in their curriculums to traditional navigational skills. Also to the ability to change over in good time in case of a GPS failure. CESMA also encourages the present generation of seafarers to use all efforts, via mentoring on board or any other means, to transfer their knowledge.
Resolution nr. 12: Harmonizing of seafarer’s certificates in the EU.
CESMA urgently requests the European Parliament and Commission, as well as all maritime EU Member States, to provide proper initiatives to harmonize procedures for training certificates of seafarers. These include certificates of training and refreshment courses, issued by EU based training institutions which should be recognized by all EU member states, both for service on EU and foreign flag vessels, in order to facilitate mobility of seafarers and reduce financial burden.
Kotor (Montenegro) 5th May 2018
HAPPY INTERNATIONAL DAY OF THE SEAFARER
Each year, on June 25th
, the International Maritime Organization marks the
Day of the Seafarer as a way to recognize the global seafaring community, as
well as seafarers’ contributions to the overall global economy.
Each year, the IMO designates a theme which it highlights
through social media campaigns. The 2018 Day of the
Seafarer theme is “seafarers’ well-being”, which according
to IMO, is a topic that has gained strong momentum
throughout the industry in recent years.
“By addressing the issue of seafarers’ well-being and particularly mental health, this
campaign can inform specific strategies to tackle stress and other issues affecting
seafarers’ mental conditions – and make the tools available more widely known,”
the IMO said.
FAREWELL TO CAPTAIN NICHOLAS (NICK) COOPER
It is with great sadness that we have to advise that Captain Nicholas Cooper (Nick) passed away on 30th April 2018 at the age of 72.
Nick had a long and successful career both at sea and ashore and was fortunate enough to work around the world, gaining vast experience across the shipping industry. He was passionate about the maritime profession and continued to be a great supporter of modern seafarers.
Nick was a Past President of the Nautical Institute and was very well known and widely respected across the shipping community, resulting in his recognition with the Merchant Navy Medal for services to the industry and the United States Coast Guard Silver Medal for the demonstration of extraordinary bravery in performing a rescue.
Nick had great stature and a ‘commanding’ presence, speaking with great authority and was able to do so in a range of languages, including Arabic. We will sorely miss his presence, wry observations and extensive knowledge. However, we raise a glass of Shiraz to Nick and wish him safe travels as he starts his next voyage. Nick was also an individual member of IFSMA. His input in various meetings was highly appreciated. As representative of NVKK, I was fortunate to meet Captain Cooper throughout the years, He showed a keen interest in the activities of CESMA. His last command was on a Maersk container ship. (FVW)
MINE IN THE PROCESS OF HARMONIZATION OF
RECOGNITION OF EU SEAFARERS’ CERTIFICATES
Today, seafarers' training and certification systems in the EU are
regulated by Directive 2008/106/EC on minimum level of training of
seafarers and Directive 2005/45/EC on mutual recognition of seafarers'
certificates as issued by Member States.
In 2017, the European Commission (EC) has launched the auditing of the Community (EU)
legislation on training, certification of seafarers and mutual recognition of seafarers' certificates. In
particular, two directives are combined into a new Directive of the European Parliament and of the
Council by amending Directive 2008/106/EC and repealing Directive 2005/45/EC. The provisions of
mutual recognition of seafarers' certificates are also being amended. The EC has already developed
its proposals, and further changes are being discussed in the Shipping Working Party of the Council.
In short, the new Directive incorporates all the provisions of the
STCW Convention with minimal changes, specifies the procedures for
the recognition of third-country certificates and establishes a
legislative framework on the mutual recognition between Member
States of all EU-issued seafarers' certificates (the Certificate of
Competency (COC), Certificate of Proficiency (COP), Documentary
Evidence (DE)). This, of course, affects mutual recognition of all
Training Certificates, issued by Training Centres or Maritime
Administrations of EU Member States.
At this moment, there is the possibility to harmonize the procedure
for mutual recognition of EU-issued Training Certificates. In my opinion, the best option would be if
all certificates were mutually recognised, without any restrictions and limitations throughout the EU,
regardless of which EU Member State they were issued. It is essential that they be recognized both
for serving on-board EU flagged vessels and for certification and re-certification purposes.
The proposal, currently developed by the EC, does not have a harmonized provision for mutual
recognition of training certificates for seafarers' certification, but ONLY for serving on-board. This
does not address the issue of removing unnecessary administrative and financial burden from
There is a lack of logic in the proposal. The aim of certification/re-certification is to verify and
ensure the compliance of the seafarer's competence with the provisions of the STCW Convention, in
order to issue a new COC, on the basis of which the seafarer can serve on-board safely.
A COC includes competencies covered by Training (course) certificates, as is seen in tables of the
Chapter II and III of the STCW Code as amended and is also explained in the B-I/2 regulation. The
issuance of any STCW Certificate in any EU country (Training Certificate or COC) already attests the
compliance of relevant competences to work safely at sea. The quality of training is continuously
monitored by EMSA in all Member States.
If Training Certificates are recognised as good enough for serving on-board EU flag vessel,
demonstrating that the seafarer in these particular competences is capable of ensuring safety at sea,
why would it be questioned in the certification process? Why should the seafarer, in order to be
certified, in many cases have to pass the STCW regulated and strictly supervised (including EMSA)
costly training course again, in case if the course was passed in another Member State and a seafarer
has a valid STCW training certificate?
The European Commission, as an argument, mentions a questionnaire carried out in February 2018,
where the majority of respondents were in favour of the mutual recognition of Training Certificates
only for serving on-board. In my opinion, in the questionnaire, this question has been asked
inconsiderately or even provocatively, as it can be interpreted. It is also not understandable, who
were the 42 respondents to whom the questionnaire was sent. The questionnaire was sent to the
Maritime Administrations and 24 responses were received from them. Two answers came from ETF
and ECSA. Who were those other 16 respondents who determined the result!? Did all respondents
who replied, particularly these 16, are so competent in the STCW Convention and Certification
issues? Why has the principle of proportionality been violated: the same number of respondents
from each Maritime Member State?
Adopting the provision of the renewed Directive, in which there will be no fairly harmonized
procedure for the mutual recognition of seafarers' Training Certificates without restrictions on their
use, additional burden will be created for European seafarers, and it will call for their lack of
understanding and dissatisfaction.
I call on everyone, who has the opportunity to intervene in the process and to achieve a
fair solution, to do so. It's not too late yet, but soon the time will pass and we'll be fighting
the consequences once again.
CAPT. JAZEPS SPRIDZANS
CESMA COUNCIL MEMBER
PRESIDENT LATVIAN SHIPMASTERS’ ASSOCIATION
SPLIETHOFF USES SPOS
Dutch ship owner Spliethoff has reduced voyage costs through using weather
data from MeteoGroup for ship routeing. It operates a fleet of dry cargo,
heavy lift and project cargo ships, freight roro and yacht transport vessels.
To assist with route planning and execution, Spliethoff uses MeteoGroup SPOS Weather Routing
services, including the latest SPOS9 software. This has become a vital tool for optimising voyages and
maximising safety for crew, cargo and vessels. It aims to save time and fuel. SPOS9 is used on board
around 100 vessels in the Spliethoff fleet. SPOS lets masters navigate with minimal fuel consumption
by calculating and recalculating optimum routes and anticipating oncoming weather and sea
conditions. The software can also be used for other running costs and against estimated times of
arrival. There are built-in ship models to help vessel masters choose the best possible route.
Spliethoff is also using SPOS for verification to check the extent to which the weather forecasts and
predictions were accurate and to further optimise fuel efficiency. Spliethoff also interacts with
weather experts at MeteoGroup. Masters are encouraged to use this expertise for second opinions if
they would like to compare ideas. But ultimately it is always up to the master to decide how to
follow the SPOS guidelines, as they are the ones with final responsibility.
NO REGRETS OVER THE INTRODUCTION Of ECDIS?
In a few months from now, the phased carriage requirements for the
Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) begin to
become a reality and we can just wonder whether all those people who
so enthusiastically has thrust us into the E-navigation age with its
mandatory requirements at the InternationalMaritime Organisation,
might have the odd second thought about the wisdom of their decision making.
It seemed such a good idea at the time, with the manufacturers all making the running and the
hydrographers pointing to the availability of electronic navigation charts. Think of the ease for chart
correcting, the precision of navigation, the removal of doubts about dead reckoning, E-navigation. It
really all belongs to the 21st century.
These are still, let’s face it, compelling arguments. But did people who ran shipping companies
really understand the implications of what was being done and what it would mean for the way that
ships were manned and navigators trained when electronic assistance moved beyond a useful aid
and became a mandatory requirement?
Some see it primarily as a sort of extrapolation of the “satnav generation” of navigation with one’s
position on the surface of the earth determined with pleasing accuracy, with no obvious need to
learn either geography or navigation. And in the de-skilling that was taking place concerning
navigation, the challenge to make the E-navigation user interested in and competent with the
principles of navigation, became far greater. In doing so you could get away without proper
understanding about what the electronic equipment was providing for you. Only when they went
badly wrong, you would be confounded because there would be no ways to conceal your
The move over to “paperless” on screen navigation is indeed a very big accomplishment. In this we
can witness the work that is being done by organisations like the Nautical Institute, the IMO, the
nautical colleges and others.
However, there is a massive job ahead to provide ”generic” training to every deck officer on earth
to produce a new generation of young people trained in this new medium and then to ensure that
everyone is conversant with and can demonstrate competence with the equipment fitted to the
particular ship they are sailing in. Personnel people will be losing their hair as they work out whether
Officer A can be appointed to Ship B without a familiarisation course on the type of ECDIS of ship B. There are still arguments raging in maritime administrations as to the length of course that is
necessary to take on board the contents of the IMO’s model for ECDIS training.
Will it all be worthwhile? Some people argue that while equipment like the gyro compass or indeed
the radar and even satnav marked a step change in navigation, everything else is just bells and
whistles. They tend to deflect from the prime duty of the navigator to keep a good lookout,
sometimes glancing through the wheelhouse windows when they still exist.
GNSS INTERFENCE AND AUTHENTICATION
Many members of organisations such as navigators on land, at sea or in
the airline industry, hydrographers, landmeters and seafarers, who use
GNSS systems, such as GPS, have to deal with this problem.
We were present at a workshop on 31
January 2018 about the actual problems
concerning interference and authentication of the Global Navigation Satellite
Systems (GNSS). The workshop was
organised in the historic site of the
ancient Teylers Museum in Haarlem,
The Netherlands. The organisation was in
the hands of the Hydrographic Society
Benelux (HSB), The Netherlands Institute
of Navigation (NIN) and Geo Information
Netherlands (GIN). CESMA is a Honorary
Member of the European Institute of
Mr. Jaco Verpoorte from NLR (The Netherlands Aerospace Centre) gave an insight in the general
causes of radio interference and which tools we have available to cope with this problem.
The worldwide spectrum of radio frequencies is quite overloaded. It needs only a small deficiency,
causing you to end up in somebody else’s frequency space. So regulations and controls are crucial.
We do not only depend on GNSS for navigation and positioning. For example banking and telecom
companies use GNSS as precise clock for the synchronization of their processes.
GNSS signals are very weak, caused by the limited sending power of the satellites. Also by the
enormous distance of 20.000 km from the earth. Not all disturbances originate from human actions.
Also activities of the sun can hamper GNSS signals and not all disturbances are caused by humans is
wanton. Poor connections or poor protection means can lead to wrong signals in the frequency
bands. Disturbances which are caused intentionally are to be divided in jamming and spoofing.
In jamming, a strong signal on the spot or nearby a GNSS frequency is sent, causing the receiver of
the GNSS signal to be unable to find the correct GNSS signal. In doing so, the use of GNSS is denied.
Spoofing is much more advanced. Signals that seem to originate from GNSS satellites cause GNSS
receivers to be diverted, away from the original location. Jammers are very cheaply available on the
internet. They are often called ”Personal Privacy Devices”. Persons who do not want to be traced by
his or her employer or police, use this method.
It is possible to counteract against intentional disturbances by using a multi-constellation / multi
frequency GNSS and the protection of antennas. Also the use of additional sensors and building in of
“clever” filters in receivers. Even the use of completely alternative systems than GNSS, could be
considered as back up.
Translation and adaptation of summary of presentation by Mr. J. Verpoorte during the seminar (FVW)
CYBER SECURITY: IMAGINE THIS
It is a normal day at the airport. All of a sudden, the automated check-in
machines display a system failure. Travel apps on smartphones stop
functioning. The agents at the check-in counters cannot operate their
computers. Travellers can neither check in their luggage, nor pass through
security checks. There are huge lines everywhere. All flights are shown as
cancelled on the monitors. For unknown reasons, baggage claim has stopped
working and more than half of the flights must remain on the ground.
A radical group have reportedly taken control of the airport’s critical systems by means of digital
and hybrid attacks. They have already claimed responsibility for the incident and are using their
propaganda channels to spread a call to action and attract more people to adopt their radical
This was the intense scenario which over 900 European cyber security specialists from 30 countries
had to face on 6 and 7 June 2018, during the ‘Cyber Europe 2018’ (CE2018) – the most mature EU
cyber security exercise to date. The two-day exercise was orchestrated by ENISA at its headquarters
in Athens, Greece, while the participants either stayed at their usual workplace or gathered in crisis
cells. ENISA controlled the exercise via its Cyber Exercise Platform (CEP), which provided a ‘virtual
universe’ (integrated environment) for the simulated world, including incident material, virtual news
websites, social media channels, company websites and security blogs.
Organised by the EU cyber security agency ENISA in collaboration with authorities and agencies
from all over Europe, the CE2018 exercise was intended to enable the European cyber security
community to further strengthen their capabilities in identifying and tackling large-scale threats as
well as to provide a better understanding of cross-border incident contagion.
Most importantly, CE2018 focused on helping organisations, including the shipping industry, to test
their internal business continuity and crisis management plans, including media crisis
communication, while also reinforcing cooperation between public and private entities. The scenario
contained real life-inspired technical and non-technical incidents that required network and malware
analysis, forensics, and steganography. The incidents in the scenario were designed to escalate into a
crisis at all possible levels: organisational, local, national and European.
Mariya Gabriel, EU Commissioner for the Digital Economy and Society, said: “Technology offers
countless opportunities in all sectors of our economy. But there are also risks for our businesses and
our citizens. The European Commission and the Member States must work together and equip
themselves with the necessary tools to detect cyber-attacks and protect the networks and systems.
This is how ENISA’s ‘Cyber Europe’ exercise was born eight years ago. It has grown into a major cyber
security exercise and has become an EU flagship event which brings together hundreds of cyber
security specialists from all over Europe.
In the end, the participants were able to mitigate the incidents timely and effectively. This shows
that the European cyber security sector has matured over the last few years and the actors are much
more prepared. ENISA and the participants will shortly follow up on the exercise and analyse the
actions taken to identify areas that could be improved. ENISA will publish a final report in due course.
MARITIME ENGLISH PUT TO THE FEASIBILITY AND DESIRABILITY OF SETTING GLOBAL STANDARDS FOR
As the lingua franca at sea, English has been designated by the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) as the language for
professional communication on board merchant navy ships.
The “use of English in oral and written form” and “the use of IMO Standard Marine Communication
Phrases (SMCP)” are requirements of the IMO International Convention on Standards of Training,
Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978, as amended 1. Under the umbrella of
English for Specific Purposes (ESP), Maritime English has carved out a niche within the maritime
curriculum and has become a source of diverse research.
Notwithstanding the key role of communication on board, seafarers display a range of Englishlanguage ability, from non-existent to fluent, which is the result of factors such as mother-tongue,
country of origin and educational background. An inability to use (Maritime) English hinders the
seafarer’s performance on board. Despite the maritime sector’s ambition to reduce the number of
accidents attributable to the human factor, evidence shows that poor English language skills,
combined with a lack of (inter)cultural awareness amongst today’s multilingual, multi-ethnic crew,
still lead to miscommunication and, sometimes, to fatal accidents. IMO offers guidelines for the
teaching, learning and assessment of Maritime English but, unlike the aviation authorities, has shied
away from supporting universal proficiency testing.
This thesis sets out to examine the feasibility and desirability of setting global standards for
Maritime English. A survey distributed to deck officers in the Belgian fleet provides data on linguistic
and (inter)cultural aspects of communication on board, including a section dedicated to IMO SMCP.
An analysis of the data reveals the key factors with a negative influence on communication. The
ensuing discussion reflects on the specific profile of the respondent group and how this impacts the
data. Extrapolating the data to the international maritime community generates the conclusion that
setting global standards for Maritime English would, without doubt, prove advantageous.
This issue was discussed during the recent CESMA AGA in Montenegro. A remark from active
shipmasters in NVKK concerned not only the language ability but also the pronunciation of maritime
English. Especially seafarers from southeast Asian countries, The Philippines in particular. Especially
their mutual language exchange, although in English, is hardly comprehensible for European
listeners, leading to misunderstandings and eventual accidents or incidents. Training institutions
should be pay attention that maritime English should be pronounced properly, understandable for
The above is a compilation of a lecture by Dr. Alison Noble at the Antwerp Maritime Academy under
the title: ”Maritime English put to the test” on 5th December 2017.
The article was sent to us by Capt. B.Baert, Secretary general of KBZ and CESMA Council member.
NVKK CELEBRATES ITS 75TH ANNIVERSARY
The Nederlandse Vereniging van Kapiteins ter Koopvaardij NVKK, (the Dutch
Shipmasters’ Association), celebrated its 75th anniversary at the premises of
Yacht Club “The Maas”. In Rotterdam. Many guests, including HRH Princess
Margriet of The Netherlands and representatives from the Dutch and Belgian
maritime field, came to Rotterdam to congratulate NVKK.
NVKK was founded in 1943 in London (UK), during the Second World War, by a number of
shipmasters from the Netherlands who commanded ships that assisted the efforts of the Allied
Forces. Because of the German occupation of the Netherlands, they could not return home.
After the war, the association grew considerably to a membership of more than 700 shipmasters.
Presently, this number is halved but NVKK is still active and has a consultative status in The
Netherlands on maritime affairs and is often interviewed by media in The Netherlands.
NVKK is a founding member of IFSMA as well as CESMA. The secretariat is based in The Hague at the
premises of the Dutch Navy Officers’ Association.
Presently the President is Captain Leen van den Ende, (formerly SHELL TANKERS)
VISIT TO MV ROSANNA IN KOPER (SLOVENIA)
It is the intention of the CESMA board to be in close contact with the active
seagoing shipmasters. In this way we may find out what is important in the
eyes of the actual membership of CESMA. The best way is to go on board of
their ships and look at the real situation. We have however to be careful not
to bother shipmasters, because their busiest hours are after arrival and
In this framework, our vice
president Capt. Giorgio Ribaric
visited mv “Rosanna” in the
port of Koper in Slovenia on
th April. There was another
reason for him to visit the ship.
Her captain, Franc Rupret, had
been his cadet when Capt.
Ribaric was master on board
mv ”Izola” when we visited the
vessel in the port of Antwerp in
Captain Rupret, born in 1980,
finished his studies at the
Maritime Faculty in Portoroz in
2012. He received his Master’s
License in 2012 at the Harbour
Office in Koper. After his exam
he was promoted to Chief Officer on mv ”Portoroz”. After serving on several vessels as Chief Officer
he was promoted to Master on mv ”Rosanna”. Captain Rupret recently joined ZPU and as such is a
During his visit to mv ”Rosanna” Capt. Ribaric
also met Chief Officer Ms. Urska Weber, who
obtained her Master’s certificate in 2016 and
was promoted to Chief Officer on mv “Rosanna”
in January 2017.
Mv ”Rosanna” is a bulkcarrier with
registration in Monrovia, Liberia. She is built in
China in 2016 and measures 38.557 MT and has
a length of appr. 180 metres. She is equipped
with 4 single deck cranes. Owner is SPLOSNA
PLOVBA, an international shipping and
chartering company, based in Portoroz.
Capt. Giorgio Ribaric, Vice President CESMA
CHRISTIAN DUPONT RECEIVES AWARD
During the SAGMAS meeting on 28th February at the premises of the
European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) in Lisbon, Mr. Christian Dupont ,
received the award of Chevalier of Merite Maritime, presented by Mr.
Philippe Roux of the French Administration.
Mr.Christian Dupont is Deputy Head
of Maritime Security with the Unit DG
Mobility and Transport.
He is a former cadet of the Ecole
Speciale de Saint Cyr with a Master of
police, Security. In 1986, he joined
the French Gendarmerie Nationale.
Since 1995, after several posts of
responsibility in the field of security
and police, he was involved in the
EU’s police cooperation. He joined
the European Commission in
September 2002, as principal
administrator in the Directorate
General for Energy and Transport, in
charge of maritime security.
Mr. Dupont is notably the author of the Communication of the EU Commission on enhancing
maritime transport security. It included the proposal for regulation on enhancing ship and port
facility security, issued on 2nd May 2003. It concerns Regulation 725/2004. He is also in charge of the
Directive 2005/65/EC on enhancing port security.
Mr. Dupont takes part on behalf of the European Commission in IMO meetings related to maritime
security. During SAGMAS meetings he reports regularly on the discussions in IMO. (FVW)
EU MEMBER STATES PUSH TO END REPORTING BURDENS FOR SHIPS
Thirteen EU member states, led by Denmark, have called on the European Commission to
present an ambitious proposal on revising the Reporting Formalities Directive. The current
directive, once introduced to improve the situation, has instead created more burdens on
ship operators in the EU, according to Danish shipping.
The thirteen member states belong to a group of ambitious countries, willing to make right
on the original objective of simplification and to lead on the creation of internal market for
shipping in the EU. Presently captains and ship operators are required to report the same
data over and over and in different formats to every EU port. Sometimes even differently
in ports in the same country. The Commission proposal is published on 2nd May 2018.
World Maritime News
CESMA ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETING IN RIGA, LATVIA, ON 11TH MAY 2017
This year the Assembly was organized in Riga, Latvia, at the invitation of our member association, the Latvian Shipmasters’ Association (LKKA). Riga is the capital of Latvia and a city full of activity and a thousand years of history, with a rich maritime past. The meetings were organised at premises close to the waterfront and were preceded by a river cruise for all the attendants (including partners) showing the various aspects of the port of Riga.
The yearly CESMA assembly started with the council meeting at the Harbour Master of Freeport of
Riga Building, situated at the waterfront, with tugboats and ice breakers moored nearby. The Council
meeting was attended by 17 representatives of 16 CESMA member associations from 13 EU
countries. Shipmasters from host country Latvia, Spain, Ireland, Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, The
Netherlands, Slovenia, Lithuania, Croatia, Bulgaria and Montenegro attended the council meeting.
The council was shortly welcomed in Riga by Capt. Jazeps Spridzans, president of the LKKA.
Next president, Captain Hubert Ardillon (AFCAN, France) opened the meeting and asked the general
secretary to mention the apologies. Deputy president Capt. Roberto Surez, recently started his new
job in the Netherlands and had no possibility to attend the meeting. The Italian Yachtmasters had no
one available to attend, just as SINCOMAR in Portugal. We could welcome two newly appointed
council members. Captain Ivan Conev replaces long time council member Captain Dimitar Dimitrov
(who remains deputy) of the Bulgarian Shipmasters’ Association (BSMA) and Captain Ivan Sosic was
appointed as successor of Captain Ivo Kucich who represented the Croatian shipmasters (ZHUPK)
until now. Former president of CESMA and now council member of VDKS (Germany), is recovering
from a knee operation and was represented by Dr. Wilhelm Mertens, general secretary of VDKS.
During last AGA in 2016 various amendments and adjustments to the Statutes were discussed. They
will be inserted in the By-Laws as changes in the Statutes require a costly procedure at a notary.
Proposal was to incorporate the function of treasurer in the CESMA Board to give the function more
substance, eventually in combination with an assistant secretary position. The problem that the
stipulation in the Statutes that two members of the board cannot originate from the same country,
this with regard to voting, was discussed. It was decided that this issue will not be relevant as
important decisions will be taken by the council and not by the board. Herewith the amendment in
the By-Laws was unanimously accorded by the council. It was also decided to cancel entrance fees
for new members as modern communication ways have simplified administration work and make
membership more attractive.
According to the reports by the general secretary, on financial matters and activities, including
representations, we can conclude that 2016 was another successful year. Membership was stable in
2016 with 18 shipmasters’ associations from 14 European nations and a number of individual
members. A number of associations is invited and are considering membership.
To communicate with members
and inform other parties about
the activities of CESMA, the
upgraded lay-out of the CESMA
NEWS is discussed and considered
an improvement, although it
turned out to be more expensive.
The website urgently needs
upgrading. The problem is with
the provider, which is not inclined
to deliver the right transfer codes.
We are looking now at other
possibilities such as face book to
inform members and interested
parties about the latest developments
As also discussed last year, good cooperation with other maritime associations and bodies will be continued. Good ties with
organisations such as EMSA, IFSMA and the Nautical Institute, are important for CESMA as they could
influence discussions and decisions being made at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in
London where the final decisions on international maritime safety and security are taken. It remains
regrettable that the Honourable Company of Master Mariners, the only independent shipmasters
association in the UK, is not interested to join CESMA, especially after Brexit has become a fact.
Our sincerest appreciation goes to the
Harbourmaster of the Freeport of Riga, Captain
Arturs Brokovskis-Vavods, a distinguished member
of the Latvian Shipmasters’ Association, who was
our host and facilitated the premises for this
successful council meeting in Riga.
RESOLUTIONS FROM 22nd CESMA AGA ON 12TH MAY 2017
AT THE RIGA PORT AUTHORITY PREMISES IN RIGA, LATVIA.
Resolution nr. 1: Criminalisation of seafarers.
The 22nd Annual General Assembly in Riga again noted that the problem of criminalisation of
seafarers and of shipmasters in particular, continues to be a matter of great concern. CESMA
urgently requests ship owners and/or operators to always provide legal assistance for masters,
serving on their ships, in case of an incident as a consequence of which they are detained by local
authorities, until, at least, a verdict has been pronounced. Moreover masters are urgently advised to
consider taking a risk insurance.
Resolution nr. 2: Piracy
The Assembly again discussed the problem of piracy against ships in various parts of the world, with
attacks on ships in the West Africa area still frequent and violent, while piracy in seas around Somalia
seems to increase lately. CESMA no longer resists the use of armed security teams, either military or
private but also advocates the use of non-violent measures which become more and more
sophisticated as an alternative, in combination with BMP 4 practices. Under all circumstances the
authority of the master should be efficaciously maintained, except when fire-arms have to be used.
CESMA also insists on exact rules of engagements to be observed under all circumstances.
Resolution nr. 3: Fatigue and safe manning.
The Assembly again discussed the problem of fatigue in the maritime industry. The requirement of a
minimum of three certified bridge watch keepers, including the master, on each seagoing vessel of
500 GT and more, is still supported by CESMA, although we see improvement due to better controls
by some flag states (Spain) and Port State Control officers. It continues to urge Port State Control
officers to intensify verification of work and rest periods during shipboard inspections.
CESMA supports the results of the Martha project.
Resolution no. 4: Safety of ro-ro and large passenger ships.
The Assembly again discussed the safety of ro-ro and large passenger ships as well as car carriers.
Disembarking a great number of passengers and crew in an emergency situation continues to be a
great concern. Damage stability as a result of flooded decks and/or holds, caused by an accident, is
still not sufficiently observed, also with regard to new buildings. Recently ordered vessels seem to
show improvements due to lessons learned from the “Costa Concordia” accident.
Resolution no. 5: Mooring accidents
The Assembly again expresses its concern about the increase of serious mooring accidents on board and
ashore. Reasons discussed are the increase in sizes of vessels, lay-out of harbours, mooring equipment used
and the ability and number of crew at the mooring stations. Another issue is disturbance in communication due
to language problems. .
Resolution nr. 6: Employment of EU seafarers
Following the growing shortage of EU officers, employed on EU flag ships, also due to complicated
procedures by some administrations regarding training and certification, the Assembly again urges
EU administrations to support their respective seafarers by recognizing certificates issued by all EU
administrations and enforcing simpler issue/renewal procedures for certificates of EU officers.
CESMA again appeals to EU ship owners to create opportunities for young EU officers to complete
their practical education and training and obtain their certificates. In this way maritime knowledge
and experience within the EU maritime industry can be maintained. All efforts should be employed to
interest young people in the EU to choose for a maritime career.
Resolution nr. 7: Illegal immigrants in the Mediterranean
The Assembly again noted with concern the situation in the Mediterranean where illegal immigrants
try to reach Europe by using unseaworthy craft which sometimes, due to overcrowding and bad
condition, require assistance from merchant navy vessels nearby. According to the SOLAS
Convention, ships are obliged to render assistance and take the immigrants on board. This could lead
to dangerous situations whereby the crew is outnumbered by the quantity of immigrants. Moreover
their intentions and medical condition are unknown, as most ships have no professional medical staff
on board. As a consequence, vessel and crew could be endangered. The Assembly again wants to
convey its concern to the European Commission and Parliament, as well as the IMO, in this respect.
Resolution nr. 8: Future of simulator training in the EU maritime industry
The Assembly again underlines the importance of simulator training in the maritime industry.
However it urges EU administrations to standardise exchanging of practical education and training
periods by simulator training as “sea time equivalent”.
Resolution nr. 9: Reduction of paperwork on board.
The Assembly urgently requests governments and authorities to intervene in reducing the many
documents to be completed by vessels before and between entering ports, as they severely increase
the working load on board, particularly of the master, who is primarily responsible for the safe
navigation of the vessel, particularly in confined waters.
Resolution nr. 10: Safe construction of Very Large Ore Carriers (VLOC’s)
The Assembly, noting with concern the large number of seafarers missing at shipwrecks of VLOC’s,
asks international maritime authorities, including the European Union, to not close their eyes on a
kind of fatality that could convict seafarers aboard this vessel type to death. It urgently requests the
European Union and its member states to push the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to
create clear legislation on VLOC’s. This includes the prohibition of conversion of Very Large Crude
Carriers (VLCC’s) into VLOC’s, as well as their current operation.
Riga 12th May 2017
ABOUT SEA TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
Transparency leads to better overall decisions resulting in increased efficiency and, in the maritime industry, improved safety as well. Imagine a world where all the information you need is at your fingertips, updated in real-time. And where most information does not have to be entered manually but is collected from various data sources.
A world where the control of information still lies with the information owner and the maritime distributed way of working still remains. A maritime world where the crew focuses on safe navigation instead of reporting, where port calls become even more efficient and just-in-time, making maritime shipping the main transport option for even more goods. We have seen the development of new services in many different industries, and the maritime sector can be revolutionized in ways that we cannot even imagine. Sea Traffic Management will overcome many of the challenges of communication and information sharing between stakeholders in the maritime transport industry. It will create significant added value for the maritime transport chain, in particular for ship owners and cargo owners.
(ULF SIWE, PROJECT LEADER)
By providing vessels with the ability to see each other’s planned routes, navigators get a more complete picture of how surrounding vessels will influence their onward voyage. Using this data, other services are able to produce valuable information and offer advice to vessels on their routes, such as recommendations to avoid congestion in areas with high traffic, avoidance of environmentally sensitive areas, and maritime safety information. The information exchange between vessel and port actors will improve planning and performance regarding arrivals, departures and turnaround times. The concept, which is somewhat inspired by the European program for Air Traffic Management, is broken down in four key enablers: Voyage Management services will provide support to individual ships in both the planning process and during a voyage, including route planning, exchange and optimization services.
1. Flow Management services will support both onshore organizations and ships in optimizing overall traffic
flow through areas of dense traffic and areas with particular navigational challenges.
2. Port Collaborative Decision Making (Port CDM) services will increase the efficiency of port calls for all
stakeholders through improved information sharing, situational awareness, optimized processes, and
collaborative decision making during port calls.
3. SeaSWIM (System Wide Information Management) will facilitate data sharing using a common information
environment and structure (e.g. the Maritime Cloud). This ensures interoperability of STM and other
There is a living Master Plan for how STM will be implemented up till the year 2030.
Mrs. Cajsa Jerslef Fransson of the Swedish Maritime Administration during her presentation of the STM Validation Project during the CESMA AGA on 12th May in Riga.
ISM CODE UNDER ATTACK
THE ”COSTA CONCORDIA” TRIALS
The Italian Supreme Court has given its final verdict after the appeal of the master of the ill-fated Italian cruise ship ”Costa Concordia”, Francesco Schettino. He was sentenced to 16-plus years in prison, as the sole responsible body for the capsizing of the vessel on 13th November 2012, causing the death of 32 persons.
This was, of course, an important decision for Captain Schettino, which ended his career as a captain and seafarer and made him a criminal, now serving his sentence in the Rebibbia prison in Rome. It was also a crucial decision for the future role of the International Safety Management code, as the safety regulation for worldwide ship operations.
By studying the court proceedings from previous trials of Captain Schettino, several crucial deviations in the Italian implementation of the ISM code can be noted, compared with what is the most common international interpretation of the code. The company freed itself of the responsibility of the accident by making a plea bargain with the court and the payment of a 1,1 million euro fine, thereby leaving the master solely responsible for the accident. This is a very questionable interpretation of the ISM code, as the main intention behind the code, was exactly to clarify who and in which degree, was the responsible body.
The ISM code’ s third chapter is not clear about the sharing of responsibility between the company and the master. The code represents a paradigm shift as in most maritime traditions of handling shipping accidents the master would be legally identified as the entity of responsibility and consequently get the blame for the accident. This matter was subject to fierce discussions during the development of the ISM code in some flag states.
In a number of countries, such as Norway, this matter became a serious issue during the amendments of their Ship Safety Laws during the adoption of the ISM code. In Norway, during the public hearing, the Norwegian Justice Department requested a clarification of the role of the company as the legally responsible entity. It concluded that the company or its representative (to be held responsible), should be the same as the appointed company or its representative, as mentioned on the vessel’s Safety Management Certificate. This means that according to this interpretation of the ISM code, the master does not have ultimate legal responsibility, unless he is named as the responsible entity on the certificate.
According to the ISM code requirement, the task of implementing and maintaining the Safety Management System is a company management responsibility and verification, including monitoring activities, related to the ship’s operation, should be carried out by a dedicated person (DPA) with access to the highest level of management. The DPA has the responsibility and authority to monitor the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each ship and has to ensure that adequate resources from the shore based support are provided, as requested by the vessel.
The introduction of the dedicated person is a consequence of the accident with the ”Herald of Free Enterprise”, whereby the UK Transport Department failed to obtain a clarification of the company’s responsibility and liability. This is considered as a reaction to conventional shipping management practise, instigated by insurance companies. This via the common insurance company’s definition of the company’s limited liability, in which any possible damage or loss under the master’s command was regarded as master’s negligence and therefore not influencing the company’s state of limited liability.
The master of the ”Costa Concordia” was claimed to be solely responsible for about 100 deficiencies and omissions under his command. If this is the case, the company’s designated person, responsible for auditing and monitoring of the safety aspects of the vessel, should have identified and reported these deficiencies to the highest level of management of the company and instigated corrective action. However these aspects were not mentioned at all by the courts where Captain Schettino had to appear. (Based on article in Lloyd’ List by Arne Sagen (FNI), accident investigator of the Skagerak Foundation, Norway).
We are aware that after the ”Costa Concordia” hit the rock near the island of Giglio and the catastrophe which developed at a later stage, there was telephone contact between Captain Schettino and the company’s DPA. In all questions, the decision to act was left to the master, including the decision not to disembark passengers and crew when the vessel was still in open sea. Loosing stability by ingressing water could have lead to capsizing of the vessel.
FIGHTING FIRES ON BOARD
On 20th April the Netherlands Branch of the Nautical Institute in cooperation with the Royal College Zeemanshoop in Amsterdam, organized a lecture on fighting fires on board of ships. The place to be was the intimate conference facility of the College in the centre of Amsterdam, breathing an appropriate maritime atmosphere with many ship models and paintings.
An audience of about 40 of, mainly, ex seafarers, showed that the subject, which must have been an experience for many, is still found interesting. Recently there were reports of a number of container ships on fire, causing, in some cases, a total loss of the vessel. With a fire on board of a container ship, it is sometimes difficult to establish the direct cause of the fire because the contents of the many containers on board is often unknown, also because it is sometimes wrongly declared. Fires can also break out in the accommodation because of electric short circuits or in engine rooms, especially when the cleanliness is at stake because of oil and grease residues.
According to the STCW convention, all certified seafarers must have a thorough training in fire fighting, a course which has to be refreshed at regular intervals. They are however no specialists in fire fighting and lack the proper experience. Investigations after ship’s fires show that mistakes in fire fighting by the crew may lead to serious cases of injury. Not seldom, unnecessary risks are the cause.
When a fire breaks out on a vessel that is near the coast, assistance can be given by local fire brigades. When a fire occurs when the vessel is in open sea, advice can be gathered from shore how to fight the fire. One of the firms which is specialized in advising vessels, is Falck with its head office in Europoort in Rotterdam. Falck Safety Servies also specializes in training in basic and advanced firefighting for seafarers according to STCW.
Mr. Gert Jan Langerak, Senior Marine Firefighting Expert of Falck, presented the afternoon’s paper on firefighting on board. Mr. Langerak has a long career in firefighting, firstly as volunteer in his home village and later as professional in the Europoort area, at first in the vast petrochemical industry and recently with Falck Safety Services.
"MSC DANIELA” ON FIRE
He knew how to fascinate the audience by showing two films which showed what a fire can do on board a vessel. The accompanying interpretation was more than clear and gave much substance to reflection and questions from the audience. It was spectacular to see how containers after an explosion in the hold of a container ship on fire, were blown away over a considerable distance from the aft ship on and over the bridge.
On 3rd April 2017 a fire broke out on the 14.000 TEU containership ”MSC Daniela” of the Mediterranean Shipping Company on her way from Singapore to the Suez Canal. The fire started in the ship’ s cargo area, when the ship was about 120 nautical miles off the port of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Firefighting continued as the ship was brought closer to the shore. All 22 crewmembers were reported as safe. After the fire had been confirmed as extinguished, an investigation in the cause of the fire was launched. The Sri Lanka Coastguard, Navy and Indian Navy, along with smaller craft and commercial tugboats participated in the rescue operation. We were informed that 4 experts from Falck Safety Services were flown in from the Netherlands to assist in extinguishing the fire and take part in the investigation. (FVW)
The European Union (EU) Port Services Regulation (PSR) came into force on March 24, after it was adopted by the European Council earlier this year. EU member states will be required to implement the legislation within two years of the abovementioned date meaning that the PSR will be effective from March 24, 2019. The new regulation establishes a framework for the provision of port services and common rules on financial transparency, port services and port infrastructure charges. The PSR is expected to make it easier for new providers of certain port services to enter the market, creating a more level playing field and reducing legal uncertainties for ports, port service providers and investors. Furthermore, the new rules are expected to ensure transparency of port charges and public funding of ports. This would lead to better use of public funds and the effective and fair application of EU competition rules in ports. Pilotage is not included.
WORLDS FIRST ALL-ELECTRIC AUTONOMOUS CONTAINERSHIP TO SET SAIL IN 2018
The “YARA BIRKELAND” is set to be the world's first all-electric, autonomous shipping container vessel when it is launched in late 2018. While self-driving cars are regularly in the news, we haven't heard as much noise on the autonomous shipping front, which could have equally far-reaching ramifications.
Norwegian company ”Yara” has teamed up with maritime technology company Kongsberg to build the world's first all-electric and autonomous container ship, which is set to hit the high seas late in 2018. This is the current road pathway “Yara” uses – the shipping route could replace 40,000 truck trips per year. This hi-tech ship, ”YARA BIRKELAND”, will carry chemicals and fertilizer from Yara's Prosgrunn production plant to the nearby towns of Brevik and Larvik. It will first operate as a manned vessel in 2018, before transitioning to remote operation in 2019 and fully autonomous control by 2020.
The most immediate benefit of the new operation comes from a major reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions as the company shifts its product transportation from what previously required 40,000 truck journeys a year to this new, all-electric shipping pathway. "With this new autonomous batterydriven container vessel we move transport from road to sea and thereby reduce noise and dust emissions, improve the safety of local roads, and reduce NOx and CO2 emissions," says Svein Tore Holsether, President and CEO of YARA.
On the autonomous side of things there are still plenty of pragmatic and regulatory hurdles to overcome before there are fully robotic ships crisscrossing our oceans. Norway is at the forefront of working through these issues with the Norwegian Maritime Authority and the Norwegian Coastal Administration last year signing an agreement designating the Trondheim fjord as the world's first test area specifically for autonomous ships. We also recently saw Rolls Royce propose a vision of autonomous shipping where robotic ships with no decks were remotely monitored by teams in control centres on shore.
The advantages of autonomous or remote-controlled ships could be immense, with vessels redesigned for maximum efficiency by removing any need for human cabins or decks. With ”Yara” and ”Kongsberg” launching the first commercial, all-electric, autonomous container ship, it seems the gauntlet has been dropped.
Their expectations of a 2020 date for fully autonomous operations mirrors the date ”Rolls Royce” predicted last year, so it's likely a future of self-piloted sea vessels could be coming faster than selfdriving cars.
Following an initiative by the Norwegian Maritime Authority, among others, IMO decided to put the issue of autonomous ships on the agenda for discussion at the next meeting of the Maritime Safety Council (MSC) through the approval of a test area in another Norwegian fjord, the Trondheim Fjord.
The UK BMT Group has gained a contract to provide simulation programs to the UK government to improve ship accident investigation. The UK’s Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) has signed an agreement to use Rembrandt software for more enhanced and accurate visual reconstruction of shipping incidents.
”Rembrandt” is a marine navigation and manoeuvring simulator. Its programs will be installed by subsidiary BMT Ship & Coastal Dynamics and will help MAIB to use voyage data recorder (VDR) data to improve the interpretation of accidents in UK territorial waters. It will also be used for investigating accidents involving UK-flagged vessels worldwide.
A key and unique attribute of ”Rembrandt” is its ability to automatically input a broad range of VDR data including 3D, radar and bridge audio to deliver a more enhanced and accurate visual reconstruction. This is a critical input for the thorough investigation of marine accidents involving vessels worldwide, especially all vessels in UK territorial waters.
BMT has installed the simulator and provided training on the technical aspects and fundamentals of ”Rembrandt” for MAIB personnel. This has allowed them to understand the process of rapid model deployment and to perform simulations for both visual reconstruction, root cause analysis and lessons-learned.
The program can be used on a desktop, laptop or as a full mission-based simulator. It comprises a database of hundreds of validated ship models that underpins the validity of one or more ships in a seaway. With this programme the shipping industry is starting to prioritise high quality electronic track data gathering for use in accident investigation, conflict resolution and lessons learned.
Miami-based Carnival Corporation has opened its second Fleet Operations Center in Seattle that will be used to provide real-time support for the company’s 102-ship fleet. Carnival’s first Fleet Operations Center is located in Hamburg, Germany. A third will be added later this year when construction is scheduled to be complete on a Miami facility at the company’s headquarters.
The new Fleet Operations Centers, a first in the commercial maritime industry, will utilize a stateof-the-art tracking and data-analysis platform that enables real-time information sharing between Carnival Corporation ships and specialized onshore teams, designed to support fleet operations. The proprietary system is intended to significantly improve communication from ship to shore and provide new capabilities for the safe passage of ships at sea, as well as help improve operational efficiencies and support overall environmental initiatives at Carnival Corporation.
The advanced system, which initially captures thousands of data points and provides real-time analytics for 28 distinct parameters for navigational safety from each ship, focuses on the following strategic areas to optimize safety, efficiency and overall fleet performance. These areas include nautical operations & safety, which includes the capability to see real-time radar visuals, stability conditions, automation, the Safety Management and Command System, and webcams from each ship, along with GPS location, routing, ship conditions and weather data. Other areas include procedural optimization and efficiency, including speeds, navigational data and engine conditions, as well as sustainability, which includes fuel and energy usage, emissions, and water and waste management.
“Our teams have done a remarkable job in developing the most sophisticated and capable system in the cruise and commercial maritime industry for taking safety management to a completely new level, overcoming the hurdles faced with ships sailing in the middle of oceans around the world,” said Vice Admiral Bill Burke (ret.), chief maritime officer for Carnival Corporation. “With our new operations centers running our proprietary technology, both our ship and shore side teams have greater-than-ever ability to ensure we are operating at safety levels that far exceed industry standards. We can now also access and analyze data that can significantly increase the operational efficiency of our ships, which is another major benefit.”
The new system, dubbed “Neptune”, utilizes cloud-based technology from Microsoft and has been in use at the Carnival Maritime Fleet Operations Center (FOC) in Hamburg, Germany, as announced in October 2015. Carnival Corporation has been piloting the system with its European cruise line brands in Hamburg and Southampton, England. Building on the system’s success, Carnival says it will continue rolling out the system this year to ships sailing in the U.S. and Caribbean, through its Fleet Operation Centers in Miami and Seattle.
“The new Carnival Corporation FOCs will provide an additional layer of support, where the shorebased analytics system will automatically generate alerts to help provide support in addressing any potential safety or weather-related issues across the fleet,” Carnival said in a press release. “Moving forward, the system’s ability to process and analyze “big data” in real time will enable Carnival Corporation and its brands to do predictive analysis with the potential to further improve safety and operations.”
The world’s GPS system is vulnerable to hackers or terrorists who could use it to hijack ships, even commercial airliners, according to a frightening new study that exposes a huge potential hole in national security.
It is possible to take control of a sophisticated navigation system on board any ship, using a laptop, a small antenna and an electronic GPS “spoofer”, built for $3,000. Injecting spoofing signals into the GPS antenna’s makes it possible to control navigation systems. Applying these instruments could cause ships running aground, therewith shutting down harbours. Experts are very worried about the implications of GPS spoofing which were recently tested on a super yacht plying the Mediterranean.
By feeding counterfeit radio signals to the yacht, the researchers were able to drive the ship far off course, potentially take it into treacherous waters or even put it on a collision course with another ship. All the time, the ship’s GPS system reported that the vessel was calmly moving in a straight line, along its intended course. No alarms, no indication that anything was amiss. The attacks on the board system were repeated but the officers on the bridge remained absolutely unaware of any difference. They were stunned by the results.
As the accident with the ”Costa Concordia” tragically proved, a ship off course can have disastrous consequences. Another example is the ”Exxon Valdez” which was only slightly of its intended track when it ran aground in Alaska, spilling 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound.
The easiest and most sinister “spoof” is to slowly slide a vessel onto a parallel course. Over time the compass might read the same heading but the ship could be far from where the navigator thinks it is. It is actually moving a mile off the intended track in a parallel line and could be running aground instead of going through the proper channel
The United States government is aware of this critical vulnerability of GPS. There have been more primitive experiments using a small unmanned drone. It was possible to feed “spoofing” signals into the drone’s GPS, causing it to nearly fall out of the sky. This experiment draw the attention of the US Congress, CIA and the Pentagon. Yet the Department of Homeland Security has been “fumbling around in the dark” on GPS security, doing little to address the threat. It has no jurisdiction over this issue and is not really showing any interest at all. However a number of Congressmen see it as a very serious and critical threat to national security. A draft report was due in August 2013, which could, depending on the results, trigger more Congressional hearings.
The GPS signals are the same as used by shipping all over the world. CESMA has been warning for the vulnerability of GPS on many occasions. Present electronic navigation and time keeping devices are all depending on GPS signals, in principle provided by the military department in the USA. Although there are signs that the international community is considering the importance of a backup system, no direct steps are taken yet. In a number of EU nations the existing LORAN stations were shut down to reduce costs. In fact the more than expensive GALILEO system was said to be able to replace the LORAN system, not mentioning that in fact the GALILEO system is just as vulnerable as GPS because it uses the same weak signals which can easily be ”spoofed”. Pure wisdom is required to prevent this important security risk at sea, in the air and on land in the future.
(Based on Fox News)
MARITIME EVIDENCE GUIDELINES PUBLISHED GATHERING EVIDENCE
___________________________________________________________________________TThe Nautical Institute’s latest book Guidelines for Collecting Maritime Evidence is now available. The guide is intended for anyone at sea and onshore – master, crew and managers – who might need to handle material after a maritime incident that could be used as evidence for later legal proceedings or insurance claims.
It is designed to remove uncertainty from the task and therefore reduce the risk of seafarer criminalization. The book is a completely revised edition of The Nautical Institute's ”The Mariner’s Role in Collecting Evidence”. The scope has been broadened and the content updated to reflect the growing importance of electronic evidence. A state safety inspector, master, insurer, surveyor, lawyer and an arbitrator each describe evidence collection from their own point of view, explaining what material needs to be gathered and how it will be used. The book is accompanied by a separate Handbook that can be kept on board as a quick reference guide. Nautical Institute President Captain Duke Snider said, “This book should be required reading for all officers.”
The Guidelines are available at http://www.nautinst.org/pubs ; price: £45; ISBN: 978 1 906915 54 4.
CEREMONY IN TRIESTE ON THE MAIDEN VOYAGE OF THE “MAJESTIC PRINCESS”
In the Trieste City Hall, a small festival of the sea took place. It involved the city and the ship yard Fincantieri. It became a beautiful ceremony for greetings to the “Majestic Princess”, to her Master, Captain Dino Sagani, and the ship owner Carnival, by the officials of the city of Trieste.
On March 31st, during a Sea Festival of the City of Trieste and Fincantieri, the new cruise ship “Majestic Princess”, on her maiden voyage, berthed at the Maritime Station.. She was commanded by Captain Dino Sagani, a member of the local Nautical Institute, established since 1754.
In the morning in the Blue Room of the Municipality of Trieste, were protagonists, next to Mayor Roberto Dipiazza and Municipal Councillor for Economic Development and Tourism Maurizio Bucci, the President of the Shipping company Princess Cruises Mrs. Jan Swartz, the President of Carnival Corporation & Plc Micky Arison and the Master, Captain Dino Sagani, born in Trieste on 1970. Designers and officials of Fincantieri with past president Corrado Antonini, Mrs. Graziella Dussi "godmother" of the “Majestic Princess” (and mother of the commander Sagani). And also, the CEO of Trieste Passenger Terminal -TTP - Franco Napp, the President of the “Collegio di Trieste dei Patentati Capitani di L.C. & D.M.” (Trieste Association of Ship’s Masters & Chief Engineers), Captain Mario Carobolante, who presented to Captain Sagani, member of the above mentioned Masters’ Association, a special crest with dedication. Also present at the ceremony were Captain Sergio Redivo general secretary of the Masters’ Association and Captain Giorgio Ribaric, VicePresident of CESMA. Also present was the son of Capt. Joseph de Luyk, Commander of the passenger ship "Italia", first ship of the Princess fleet that sailed 50 years ago from the Maritime Station in Trieste, one of the first of the "love boat" era.
The Mayor, Roberto Dipiazza, welcomed all present, noting the joy of the opportunity to have the authorities of Princess Cruises present. He presented to the cruise ship the flag symbol of the city and the City Plates. Next President Swartz of Princess Cruises stressed that for his company it is "an honour to return to Trieste, a city that we always have in the heart when in 1967 one of our first ships left the port of Trieste". He further announced that ”three of our ships will soon be built at Fincantieri, just as big and beautiful as the ”Majestic Princess."
The Commander Dino Sagani then proudly announced: "These are the most beautiful days of my career. Bring a ship for the first time in my town has been a priceless emotion. Being a ship designed and built in Monfalcone, and the largest made by Fincantieri. symbol of a shipbuilding - said Sagani - that makes us envied by the world! So I take it with pride on my ship, worldwide, the flag of Trieste.
In late afternoon, Captain Dino Sagani, surprised everyone by making a smart sailing from the Maritime Station quay (the ship is 330 meters long and measures 143 tons). Instead of backing up to get out of the San Giusto basin and then turn around in open waters, as usual, the ship rotated 180 degrees in the narrow space of San Giusto basin, between the corner end of the quay and with her stern a few meters from the Molo Audace, without any tug assistance. All this was accompanied by the crackle of fireworks, by the applause of the crowd and a special siren, which greeted Trieste at 18 pm with an original melody, different from the tune on arrival. The ”Majestic Princess” will definitely leave the Mediterranean in the middle of May to her home port Shanghai, China, a recently discovered market in the cruise industry.
FROM: LIVING TODAY, March 31th,
(2017 – 2)
We were represented at the following occasions:
31 Mar Trieste Ceremony “Majestic Princess”
20 Apr Amsterdam Fire-fighting on board (NI)
11 May Riga CESMA Council Meeting
12 May Riga CESMA Annual General Assembly
19 May Trieste European Maritime Day
Seminar Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)
15 Jun Barcelona Seminar “ Safety of Passenger and ROPAX ships”
(from ” Titanic” to today)
CESMA 20TH ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY
IN VIAREGGIO, ITALY
5/16 MAY 2015
This year the Assembly was organized in Viareggio, Italy, at the invitation of our member association USCLAC. Viareggio is a beautiful coastal city in Toscane of which the fortress acted as defence bastion during the many wars between Pisa and Genoa during the early middle ages.
The yearly CESMA meeting started with the Council meeting at the conference centre ”Principe di Piemonte”, overlooking the Mediterranean. The Council meeting was attended by 14 representatives of 14 CESMA member associations, from 11 EU countries, the largest number in the existence of CESMA. Shipmasters from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Latvia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Montenegro attended the Assembly.
The meeting was opened by outgoing president, Captain Wolf von Pressentin (VDKS), who asked for a moment of silence for the remembrance of the passing away of Captain Romano Serra (CTPC, Trieste) who was vice president of CESMA during the first years of its existence.
Next, attention was asked for the 20th anniversary of CESMA. The general secretary gave an overview of the reasons for the founding of CESMA and its progress during the years for it to become the Confederation of today with 17 shipmasters’ associations in 14 maritime European nations. Nowadays the voice of European shipmasters is heard in Brussels and their opinion is valued.
According to the CESMA statutory stipulations, president Captain Wolf von Pressentin (VDKS) stepped down as president of CESMA, after six years in office. Deputy president Captain Giorgio Ribaric summed up the merits of Captain von Pressentin and expressed CESMA’s appre- ciation for everything he had accomplished for the Confederation.
As there was only one candidate for the position of president, Captain Hubert Ardillon (AFCAN) was presented as such. The Council elected Captain Ardillon with acclaim.
Next the general secretary and acting treasurer, Capt. Fredrik van Wijnen presented he financial papers, showing that CESMA has a sound financial basis with the restriction that expenses have to be monitored very strictly in order to maintain this position. A small increase in subscription has been materialized this year. The only way to increase the budget is to look for new membership which is high on the agenda of activities, also for the coming year. There are several possibilities which will be further investigated. The Croatian shipmasters association, which was associated member, has asked for full membership, now Croatia has recently become a member of the European Union.
An ongoing discussion is the question whether shipmasters can effect an insurance to protect them legally if they are falling a victim of criminalization as most shipping companies deny responsibility to protect their masters or officers if they are detained for offences of any kind in a foreign country. The Nautical Institute has a suitable possibility for its members with the restriction that expenses should not rise above 100.000 British pounds. Everyone is aware of the cost of a lawyer, especially when the court case is taking years.
The afternoon session was dedicated to two actual problems which will keep CESMA busy for the coming years. Firstly the accident with the “Costa Concordia” and the conviction of USCLAC member, Captain Francesco Schettino, was discussed as a follow up of an action by a Norwegian expert who approached the case from a different angle. According to Mr. Arne Sagen, an expert in the field of the ISM Code, the code was initiated to bring more responsibility to the shore organisation of a shipping company, meaning that the punishment of Captain Schettino, as only guilty person, is totally beyond proportion. This will certainly be brought up when Captain Schettino again has to appear before a court in Italy when his appeal against the 16 year prison sentence will be heard. The Council decides to follow the appeal on a low profile, without actively playing a part.
The next day the Annual General Assembly was held at the same premises in a different accommodations with more seats. The morning was covered by a maritime workshop covering such issues as “New leaders, new technologies and new challenges” by Dr. Luca Sisto, vice president of the Italian Institute of Navigation, on the changing world of ship’s management and navigation methods, “Electronic Cartography” by Mr. Andrea Odone and reporting of accidents and incidents by Captain John Rose, director of CHIRP, the UK Confidential Information and Reporting Programme for Aviation and Maritime. In a later issue of the CESMA NEWS, we will highlight the main features of the presentations. In the afternoon the CESMA General Assembly discussed the various issues which have kept CESMA busy during the year.
Criminalisation of seafarers, shipmasters in particular, is still an important item which asks the attention of CESMA. The actual cases are mentioned such as the ”Costa Concordia” case whereby Captain Schettino has been convicted to 16 years in prison, but has appealed and that of Bulgarian Captain Sobadzhiev who is still in prison in Panama waiting for two signatures from Panamanian authority before he can be extradited to Bulgaria. No other cases have been brought to the attention of CESMA, although we presume that there is a level of underreporting.
Next piracy is shortly discussed and the General Secretary gives some short information on the projects in which CESMA is playing a part. Piracy in the Indian Ocean has almost disappeared but attacks in the Gulf of Guinea and the Far East are now a reason for concern.
An ongoing problem is fatigue in the maritime industry, primarily caused by the six on six off watch system. As during discussions at earlier assemblies, this system is rejected but is still in use, mainly in the short shipping in Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands. During the revision of the STCW Convention in Manila, the system was kept alive, as a consequence of the so-called Manila amendments. A change in these amendments could bring improvement but it is common knowledge that changes in IMO legislation take a long time. Moreover the initiative should come from those national administrations or international organisations that have a status at IMO. CESMA is only in the position to try to activate the European Commission to use its influence at IMO.
On safety of ro-ro and large passenger ships, Captain Mario Carbolante of the Trieste Collegio Capitani, recites the opinion of the members of his organisation. This report will be reproduced in the present CESMA NEWS. Recent cases of fire on board ferry vessels show that drivers and other personnel are still with their trucks in the car deck, meaning that possible dangerous actions could cause fire in these car decks. Moreover the passenger lists on ferries are not correct, not to mention eventual stowaways on board. Also the damage stability of roro ships is discussed. As soon as one of the car decks becomes flooded, most roro ships have an acute stability problem.
Next the dependency on electronic navigation equipment on board ships is being discussed by the Assembly. Is the modern navigator still looking out of the window and does he or she knows how to fix a position without using GPS? On some vessels, like gas carriers, the traditional way of navigating is still compulsory and should be practised at regular intervals. This is being checked by the vetting inspectors. Although young seafarers still aspire to use the sextant, the Assembly is of the opinion that the knowledge of astronomical navigation will slowly disappear in the future. To improve safety of navigation, the introduction of e-navigation is discussed. The different aspects of the system are mentioned. It concerns streamlining and harmonization of existing equipment and information channels. CESMA will follow developments in e-navigation closely.
After the coffee break, one of most actual and important issues was discussed: the saving of refugees in distress in the Mediterranean by merchant ships. Captain Cuyt (KBZ) has attended a recent seminar in Brussels organized by the European Commission, covering this problem. SOLAS stipulates that a shipmaster is obliged to rescue people in distress at sea under the condition that the safety and security of his crew and vessel is not jeopardised. This means that a vessel could refuse to take people in distress at sea on board. This could have serious consequences, also in the political area. This means that reasons for refusal must be very well grounded and documented to exonerate the master from prosecution. After an intensive discussion it is decided to formulate a resolution in a later stage to enable council members to deliberate with their associations. After distributing the text of the resolution, all remarks and opinions of the council will be included in the final text, which is reproduced on page 18 of this CESMA NEWS.
Investigation into maritime accidents is found to be very important for reasons of the learning aspect in order to prevent similar accidents in the future. It appears that in a number of nations in the EU, investigation into maritime accidents is not longer a priority or is no longer practised. This phenomenon is a concern of the European Commission as it affects maritime safety. Activities in this field are to be expected , starting with a seminar in Brussels on 12 February this year which CESMA attended. The airline industry is considered as an example for proper investigation into accidents. The Assembly agrees on the importance of this initiative of the European Commission.
The Assembly also paid attention to the shortage and employment of EU seafarers. It is crucial that young people in the EU aspire after a seafaring career as the future maritime knowledge and experience in the EU is at stake. Therefore it is of the utmost importance that young EU officers can find employment on ships under an EU flag. In a number of EU member states initiatives are ongoing and CESMA will do its utmost the European Commission and the European Economic and Social Committee of the importance of these initiatives.
Simulator time against sea time is the next point of discussion. Recent initiatives strive after less sea time on board for maritime students in their last year. This should be replaced by simulator time in order to save costs and compensate the shortage of places on board for apprentices. The Assembly is of the opinion that the learning time on board is very important for a solid preparation for a maritime career. For this reason the time on board, as stipulated in the STCW Convention, should remain unchanged while at the same time the importance of simulator training is endorsed.
A constant returning point of attention during CESMA assemblies is the safety of live saving equipment. A recent accident is highlighted by a report of the MAIB (UK). Main conclusion is poor quality of training of the crew. CESMA again asks the IMO and the European Commission to pay attention to this ongoing problem which causes loss of life of and injuries to seafarers.
After this last item and some husbandry matters, such as the location for next year’s assembly, the president, Captain Ardillon, closed the meeting, thanking Captain Tomei and USCLAC for the hospitality received and the excellent organisation in Viareggio. He also thanked the participants for attending the Assembly in such large numbers. (FVW)
ONE MANS’ NAVIGATION ALWAYS WRONG?
Previous to our 20th Annual General Assembly, we received remarks and comments on the Agenda as presented. For many active seagoing member shipmasters it is impossible to actually attend the assembly but in some cases their contributions reach us anyway such as this year by CTPLC&DM (Trieste) president and CESMA council member captain Mario Carbolante. On item 8 of the agenda, Safety of roro passenger vessels, car carriers and cruise ships the following:
As size of vessels is increasing, ship owners should bear in mind that the minimum safe manning, as per flag state issued certificates, is no more than the bare minimum required to operate the ship. However, in order to provide a high standard of safety and security, manning needs to increased, according to the ship’ s size and number of passengers carried.
When crews are composed of several nationalities, the official working language on board is to be clearly stated and approved by the flag state. All crew members whose native language is different, should provide a certificate of basic knowledge of this language before being hired.
Passenger vessels need to have a minimum of two certified officers on bridge watch at all times in order to practice proper Bridge Resource Management (BRM). This number should be increased according to traffic and or weather conditions and proximity to land. Some companies are currently experimenting this with the so-called ”navigator/co-navigator system”. The navigator in charge, while normally managing the vessel by himself, shall consult and agree on every (important) decision affecting security and safety conditions with the co-navigator. This pilot/co-pilot system was first introduced in the aviation after a big accident occurred in Tenerife in 1977 when the captain of a Boeing 747 took the decision to take off in restricted visibility conditions, without consulting his first officer in the co-pilot seat who knew that the tarmac was not cleared. This resulted in a collision with another aircraft (KLM vs PanAm), causing a huge number of casualties. The pilot/co-pilot system wants to be a response to possible human error and aims at reducing the margin for assertive behaviour between senior and junior officers.
The introduction of the close loop system and the ”think aloud” technique to ensure that planned routes are followed. If any deviation is to take place this can only be materialised after a proper discussion between the navigator and the co-navigator.
While normally most passenger vessels have a dedicated security officer, including an adequate security system, this task is usually delegated to the captain or the chief officer on roro passenger ships. However, high workload and busy itinerary can lead to these tasks being overlooked. For these reason consideration should be given that vessels carrying a large number of passengers, should have a permanent security officer on board.
Many ports around the world are now starting to put regulations in place concerning weather limitation for vessels entering or leaving the port. These should be standard rules for any port according to tonnage of the ship and weather conditions including port facilities. Tug assistance should be compulsory according to weather conditions rather than leaving it as an option for the master to use it or not. All that should relieve the so-called “ commercial monetary pressure” from the ship owner to the master to ask or not to ask for tug assistance. When weather conditions are such that the “safe manoeuvre” may be at risk, the Port Authority should simply close the port, rather than leaving the decision to the pilot or the master to give it a chance. As an example, all airports around the world have a wind threshold above which the airport is closed to landing an airplanes must be deviated or wait to take off.
It is obvious that some remarks and suggestions originate from the accident with the ”Costa Concordia”. This was indeed an ”interesting” case because many things went wrong resulting in the disaster and the loss of life of 32 persons. To mention a few:
The language problem certainly played a role during disembarkation of the passengers. Witnesses have mentioned misunderstandings during embarkation in lifeboats. Although the usual language on board was Italian, many crewmembers from such nationalities as the Philippines are English orientated. Much work is being done also by the IMO to come to decent standards.
The second issue is bridge resource management and the navigator/co-navigator system which in itself is a sound (democratic) solution. However in certain circumstances it is impossible, where immediate action is required, it is impossible to start a discussion. A bad or good example was the situation on the bridge of ”Costa Concordia” just before the vessel hit the Giglio rock. An emergency manoeuvre to evade the rock, ordered by the master, was contradicted by the little experienced chief officer, resulting in no action at all because the helmsman had no idea who to listen to. And in the end when it really goes wrong, the master always carries the can and is held responsible, if he has to appear before a court of investigation or a tribunal. (FVW)
FIRST EUROPEAN SHIPPING WEEK
Last year the European Community Shipowner’s organisation ECSA published a UK initiated report on the importance of the European maritime industry for the European Union. We were at the presentation of the book-let in Brussels and have a copy in our files. The value for of the shipping industry to the EU economy is figured at 56 billion euro yearly, while it employs almost 600.000 Europeans.
As a logic follow up, ECSA organised the first European Shipping Week (ESW) in Brussels 0n 2-5 March, with the main event, a seminar on the European maritime industry in general, staged at the famous Plaza Hotel in Brussels. The aim was to press the case for action to head off growing competition from other parts of the world. The conference came on the moment that the European Commission works on a mid-term review, as part of a top level review on its maritime policies. The ESW aimed to bring a broad spread of the maritime sector together to give Members of European Parliament and EU Commission officials a united message about the importance of supporting shipping and seafarers in the European Union.
A joint statement was issued by the European Community Shipowners Association (ECSA), the European Community Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (ECASBA), the Cruise lines International Association, the European Tug owners Association (ETA),the European Dredging Association, Interferry and the World Shipping Council. The statement stressed the need for Brussels to deliver a stable and predictable fiscal and regulatory regime for the European shipping industry. The seven organisations called for the European Commission to re-evaluate the industry’s sustainability and recognise the environmental benefits that shipping can offer by shifting more cargo and passengers to water transport (e.g. the Motorways of the Seas project which needs more attention and support to become successful).
In her first major speech on the maritime industry, transport commissioner Mrs Violeta Bulc said that her first four months in office had shown her how important shipping really is. She showed to be conscious how important other measures are to maintain the competiveness of European shipping, apart from the tonnage tax system of which she confirmed the continuation as part of the important benefits it gives to the European shipping industry. Yet she cautions that the Commission will keep an eye on how member states implement the state aid guidelines in this area. The common objective is to keep the European flag attractive and of a high quality.
The constant decrease of the number of EU seafarers is a worrying development for the Commission. Mrs Bulc confirmed that the Commission remains committed to initiatives to support the maritime profession, including better continuity between seagoing and shore based careers, including excellent employment conditions for European seafarers. To promote such conditions, without compromising the competitiveness of the European fleet, a better enforcement of working conditions for all ships, calling at a European port, should be practiced. It seems that Mrs Bulc has uttered her astonishment on the fact that so many positions on EU flagged ships are taken by non European seafarers while there is such a a huge un-employment under young European citizens.
An important issue for discussion was aimed at the attractiveness of the seafaring profession for young Europeans and how to interest them for a maritime career. A booklet presented by the author who was on board for a period to find out how life on board is really like, gave a gloomy impression based on interviews with crew members on board of one of vessels of one of the major players in the European merchant fleet. Yet a number of EU nations is doing its utmost to promote a seafaring career. The Dutch example was presented by Mrs Tineke Netelenbos, president of the Shipowners Association in the Netherlands. The “Sea legs in the Classroom” project is a success and has led to 25% percent more students on nautical schools in the Netherlands. Moreover Dutch shipowners guarantee a training place on one of their ships and a job guarantee after completing the training and education period.
General Secretary Mr. Mark Dickinson, of Nautilus International, presented a strong plea for the European Commission to do more to protect the EU’s seafarers skill base in its review of its maritime transport strategy. For two decades there have been warnings about the decline of the numbers of seafarers in Europe, but we have seen little sign of any far-reaching action to reverse the trend. Numbers coming into the industry are insufficient to replace those retiring and the resulting shortage is starting to be felt into shore-based maritime industries which rely on experienced seafarers. The real problem, according to Mr. Dickinson, is not a shortage of bright and able young EU seafarers but instead a shortage of opportunities in many European counties.
The European Shipping Week was concluded with a gala dinner at the Plaza Hotel where a variety of speakers gave their impressions of this initiative of ECSA, amongst them Mr. Guy Verhofstadt, former Prime Minister of Belgium, Mrs Bulc and to round up, Mr. Thomas Rheder, president of ECSA We should not to forget to praise the input of ECSA General Secretary, Mr. Patrick Verhoeven. (FVW)
IMO ELECTS NEW SECRETARY GENERAL
Mr. Lim Ki-tack has been elected the new secretary- general of UN's International Maritime Organization (IMO).The election took place at the IMO Council session held in London on 30 June and is to be formally confirmed by the IMO Assembly convening in November of this year. Subsequently, Mr. Lim Ki-tack is expected to take up the post on 1 January 2016. He has been elected for a four-year period until 2020, with the possibility of a four-year extension.
CONTAINER WEIGHING GUIDELINES REVEALED
On July 1, 2016, global containerized maritime commerce will need to comply with new international regulations that require every packed container to have a verified container weight as a condition for vessel loading.
In order to bring long-needed improvements to maritime safety, in November 2014, the IMO adopted amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Chapter VI, Part A, Regulation 2 - Cargo information. The regulations place a requirement on the shipper of a packed container, regardless of who packed the container, to provide the container’s gross verified weight to the ocean carrier and port terminal representative, sufficiently in advance of vessel loading to be used in the preparation of the ship stowage plan.
A verified container weight will be a condition for loading a packed container on board a vessel for export. The vessel operator and the terminal operator will be required to use verified container weights in vessel stowage plans, and they will be prohibited from loading a packed container on board a vessel for export if the container does not have a verified container weight. The World Shipping Council and its member shipping lines have developed guidelines to explain what the implementation of the SOLAS amendments will require of shippers, carriers, and terminal operators. The council recommends that all parties should use the next twelve months to plan for the efficient and effective implementation of the requirement in July 2016. The guidelines are available here.
On 18 and 19 June, 130 maritime stakeholders from 24 countries gathered in Copenhagen at the excellent premises of the Copenhagen Business School to discuss the outlook of Short Sea Shipping (SSS). The platform for this discussion was the European Short Sea Shipping Conference 2015, which was organized by the Maritime Development Centre of Europe and CBS Executive, in collaboration with the European Shortsea Network.
High-level speakers such as Mrs. Anne Steffenson (Danish Shipowners Association) and Mr. Brian Simpson (European Coordinator for Motorways of the Sea) welcomed the participants. Subsequently, delegates could enjoy four sessions, focusing on the market dynamics of Short Sea Shipping, the Motorways of the Sea and financing schemes, port and technology issues, and policy and cost issues. In these sessions there was a particular focus on the challenges ahead of Short Sea Shipping (SSS).
The conference showed that size matters, as one of the main challenges for SSS, put forward by the speakers, was the increasing size of vessels. This is expected to have repercussion for ports, which will have to deal with a lower frequency of calls, and operators, as freight rates are expected to be under pressure due to overcapacity. It could also affect the safety of the traffic within the ports, especially during manoeuvring, when safety margins become critical due to the size of the vessels and the impact of side winds in gusts.
Other challenges for SSS were related to policy- making, including environmental legislation, cumbersome bureaucratic procedures, and a lack of harmonization of legislation.
To help SSS overcome some of these challenges the EU has developed different financing mechanisms. For example, financial instruments from the European Investment Plan and the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) were developed to facilitate access to lending.
Although more limited, CEF also provides grants for transport projects. It was announced that a new call for proposals would be published before the end of the year.
The real argument in the discussions is to convince cargo forwarders to choose for shipping instead of road or rail. This cannot be solved by subsidies, they have an end and are sometimes used on unjust grounds. Short sea shipping will have to compete on timely schedules for freight to arrive, on limitation of cargo claims and ,of course, on prices.
Another aspect is the human element. Ships which are operating in short sea shipping will have to be manned by expert personnel who are aware of tight sailing schedules and prevention of cargo claims if the vessel meets with adverse weather conditions especially in the winter period. It is self explanatory that manning of these short sea ships cannot be entirely be entrusted to foreign seafarers. For the sake of continuity, more seafarers from EU nations should be employed, not only for their quality but also to safeguard maritime knowledge and experience in the European Union.
José Anselmo (Principal Administrator of the European Commission’s DG for Mobility and Transport), called on shipowners to consider the Commission as a partner and to work together on better solutions to help short sea shipping in the EU, as well as to make the EU a maritime power.
Finally, it was announced that the next SSS conference would take place on 29-30 September 2016 in Barcelona, Spain.
We can look back on a very successful conference featuring a number of interesting and instructive presentations, with contributions from as far as Canada, moderated by Mr. Anselmo who has a gift to keep an audience alert and sometimes even amused. The success can also be attributed to an excellent organisation in which the Copenhagen Business School and Mrs Irene Rosberg, the Program Director and her team played an important part. (FVW)
FAIR TREATMENT OF CAPTAIN SCHETTINO?
The Italian court’s verdict of 11th February 2015, where Costa Concordia’s captain Schettino was found guilty of manslaughter and shipwrecking, and sentenced to 16 years in jail, while the shipping company Costa Crociere got away with a plea bargain agreement of 1 million Euro, undermines the modern maritime concept of enhancing the safety of sea and a fair treatment for seafarers.
Captain Schettino accepted a degree of wrongdoing, but refused to stand alone, arguing that other parts also should share the blame for the casualty. His final comments to the court was that he felt he was being “sacrificed” to safeguard economic interests of the company.
Regretfully, I did not have the opportunity to be present during the trial, and consequently, my comments to the verdict of the captain is merely based upon comparison with the ISM safety management code. Before the ISM Code, the most common ruling was to claim “crew negligence” and blame the captain as responsible for the accident. Most maritime insurance policies have a loss limiting agreement for the company if the cause of the accident was crew negligence, which was an insufficient practice to enhance safety at sea. Quite the contrary, the ISM Code is directing the attendance to find the underlying causes within the company’s management, and to improve the relevant procedures to avoid any reoccurrence of the accident.
Mandatory accident investigation
The conventional mandatory accident investigation after ships casualties are not suited for any form of litigation against the seafarers, as they have quite deeper purpose. The SOLAS regulation 21 requires administrations to undertake an investigation of ships casualties “when it judges that such an investigation may assist in determining what changes in the present regulations might be desirable”. It is not at all directed at finding flaws or wrongdoing of the seafarers. Quite the contrary, it is clearly stated that it shall not be the purpose of the investigation to determine liability or to apportion blame.
The traditional inquiry’s expression of any human fault, as wrongdoing or omitting to do a necessary action, is the term negligence or gross negligence. But the border line between an ordinary negligence and gross negligence is not easily defined. In standard terms, as gross negligence occurs when the relevant action causes a substantial harmful risk. But even then, negligence is not a criminal offence, as also a willful act must be involved to make it a criminal offence.
But even if the negligence of the captain, or one of his mates, is ruled to be the causative act of the accident, this is not enough to impose criminal offence against them. A criminal offence requires that the person who is responsible for the negligence act, must in advance have understood – or should been aware of - the risk involved. As an example, the captain must in fact have been aware of that the later on heavy criticized deviation of the ships course probably would result in shipwrecking (“conscious gross negligence”).
As a relevant example of the limitation of the flag state’s inquiry, captain Schettino accepted that he had misunderstood the ship’s command procedures, which led to problems with the change of command on the bridge when the situation became critical, and this misunderstanding might have contributed to the fatal outcome of the accident. Was this acceptance an evidence of miss-judgment by the captain, or was it an evidence of an inappropriate bridge command procedures from the company?
An unacceptable blame-game.
In the aftermath of any ships accident with loss of innocent lives, the survived and the deceased families have a tendency to claim the accident as a professionally and morally wrongdoing by the crew. The media will support this view, and this will create an immense pressure on the accident investigators to find somebody to blame. And what is more natural than looking at the active part in the accident, the ship’s crew.
The philosophy behind the ISM Code is quite different, as the code is looking at the ship as a product of the of the company’s safety attitude, by stating “the cornerstone of good safety management is commitment from the top”. What may seem to look like negligence by the crew can be a symptom of deeper breach in the company’s organizational safety culture.
ISO Quality Assessor
CONSEQUENCES OF LOSING CONTAINERS AT SEA
The Gard P&I Club has issued a two-part Insight article on container losses at sea. The first part of the Insight article looks into the changing approach to the environmental impact of losing containers at sea and the significant costs involved. The next article will review some of the causes of container losses and what can be done to help prevent them.
In its last survey, the World Shipping Council estimated that the international liner shipping industry carried approximately 120 million containers packed with cargo in 2013. It also estimates that on average 1,679 containers are lost each year. The actual figure is argued by some to be much higher. Search and recovery The consequences of losing containers overboard have become far greater than simply losing the value of the cargo and the container shell.
In February 2014 the “Svendborg Maersk” was reported to have lost 517 containers in the Bay of Biscay, 85 per cent were empty with the balance containing dry non-hazardous goods. With only 17 floating containers recovered, the French authorities ordered the ship owners to map the exact location of the containers which sank.
In the “Rena” incident in 2011, some 700 km of seabed were reportedly surveyed to try to find sunken containers that had floated free of the wreck. Some 35 out of 70 containers were reported to have been recovered at a cost of over USD 20 million. In addition to the search costs in the “Rena” case came the expense of dealing with debris coming ashore from just four lost containers. Polyethylene beads used for bean bags were considered a visual blight on beaches. At just 2.5 millimetres in diameter, they did not pose any significant risk to public health and safety or to wildlife. Nevertheless, an order was made for their removal, which proved extremely difficult and costly. Up to 500 people, vehicles, vessels and a helicopter were deployed at a reported cost in the region of USD 10 million.
In policy years 2013-14, ”Gard” had five cases involving the loss of 250 containers in total. Most of these losses took place in deep, international waters well off the coast, so no search/removal orders were made, though total cargo claims ran to millions of dollars. However, a vessel which foundered at the anchorage of a West African port, was ordered to recover over 150 lost containers by the authorities. Although search and removal orders have been few and far between, they have resulted in significant costs when made.
In 2006, a container ship in European coastal waters lost 58 containers. The cost of seabed surveys and the recovery and disposal of beached containers and contents exceeded USD 1 million even then.
Later in 2011, a bulk carrier lost 26 containers from its deck in the busy shipping area off China. The authorities demanded a sonar sweep of over 1,000 square kilometres, at an estimated cost of USD 4 million. An initial 24 square kilometre sweep identified 15 containers and some were salved at a cost of several million dollars.
Following another incident in China in 2012, some 150 containers were missing. The authorities issued search and removal orders covering a 50 square kilometre area, which cost approximately USD 5 million. Close to 50 containers were recovered.
More stringent measures ahead?
Container ships with a capacity of over 19,000 TEU are now in service and over 20,000 TEU ships are on order, capable of loading with 11 tiers on deck.
Following a casualty, it is questionable how quickly containers can be removed before conditions deteriorate and uncontrollable losses occur. Following the ”Svendborg Maersk” incident, France and Spain submitted a paper to a meeting of the IMO Sub-Committee in September 2014 on Carriage of Cargoes and Containers, outlining various dangers posed to fishing activities, pollution of the marine environment and harm caused by containers containing dangerous and polluting substances. The paper calls for:
on-board means to identify the exact number of losses
compulsory reporting of lost containers
where losses occur in sensitive zones, measures to precisely position containers in order to recover them where it is technically possible to do so
for containers carrying dangerous materials, as defined in the IMDG Code, a way to facilitate the tracking of containers in order to recover them as quickly as possible and limit the risks of pollution.
Neither France nor Spain has yet ratified the Nairobi Convention on the Removal of Wrecks (WRC), which came into force on 14 April 2015. The WRC provides for strict liability on the registered ship owner for the costs of locating, marking, and removing the hazard represented by the wreck of a vessel, following a lawful order of a competent authority. The WRC’s definition of a wreck is wide enough to include containers. The definition of hazard is also wide, as is the area to which the WRC can apply.
Whilst the scale of container loss and relative environmental impact is much less than other sources of pollution, it is increasingly obvious that States will not accept to have their coastlines ruined by container wreckage. There also appears to be growing attitude among many port and coastal authorities that a pure navigational hazard of sunken containers represents an unacceptable risk. In addition to the new wreck removal convention, wide enough to include containers, there are advances in container tracking and deep sea removal Technologies as well as studies into the potential long-term (adverse) impacts of containers as a source of pollution at sea. The consequences of losing containers at sea, should be of increasing concern for ship owners, operators and masters.
We are waiting for the first shipmaster to stand trial if his vessel is being held accountable for loosing containers at sea. From report by: The Gard P&I Club
SURVEY ON DETERRENT FROM PIRACY ACTIVITIES
An informal survey of convicted Somali pirates is shedding new light into their motivations, attitudes towards piracy, and what has been the biggest deterring factor contributing to the reduction of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia.
The survey of Somali inmates accused of piracy on the high seas was conducted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime with the maritime advocacy group Oceans Beyond Piracy and polled a 66 inmates at Hargesia prison in Somaliland, Bosasso Prison in Puntland, Somalia and Montagne Posee Prison in the Seychelles.
The survey found there is a clear economic basis for piracy, and any long-term solutions to piracy would require addressing this. One prisoner reported going to sea because “My family is poor, so that’s why I joined the pirates.” One reason for leaving piracy was that they had enough money to retire, and many prisoners also pointed to illegal fishing as a reason for piracy and suggested that if it persisted then piracy may continue.
Prisoners who knew pirates who quit piracy indicated that family and community pressures were very important consideration for people leaving piracy, and counter-piracy messaging encouraging this may be valuable. Additionally, a prisoner reported “Prison is the worst place to be in the world”: with many prisoners specifically citing fear of future prison time as a deterrent.
International naval presence was frequently reported as a concern or a significant contribution to deterring pirates. The same was true for armed guards aboard vessels, although to a lesser degree than international navies, suggesting that a significant draw-down in naval forces may reduce a deterrent factor potentially contributing to the reduction in piracy.
Conor Seyle the Director of Research at the One Earth Future Foundation, commented: “This survey shows that international navies, family and social disapproval, and the deterrent effects of prison are all elements of suppressing piracy, while economic pressures and illegal fishing all push people towards piracy. This survey shows the need for a coordinated response rather than a one size fits all solution.”
Oceans Beyond Piracy notes that the survey and its findings should be viewed as what prisoners wanted to report to the UNODC, and not a wholly neutral survey.
Highlights of the survey findings are below:
Poor economic conditions were reported as the major reason for engaging in piracy, and long- term solutions to piracy should address this.
Prisoners report being very impacted by prison, and express a strong desire to avoid future prison time.
International navies, more than any other counter-piracy activity, were listed as the primary deterrent. Armed guards aboard ships were also frequently listed.
A substantial number of prisoners rejected the term pirate or piracy, maintaining that they were fishermen who were not guilty of piracy.
For those pirates who knew someone who left piracy, the dominant reason was family or community pressure.
The illegal fishing narrative remains a rationalization for piracy.
SHIPPING INDUSTRY AS PART AND PARCEL OF WEST AFRICA SECURITY SITUATION
ECSA, the European Community Shipowners’ Associations, organised on 29 June, in cooperation with the European External Action Service and the European Commission, a very well attended workshop on the ways in which the shipping industry can get involved in the Gulf of Guinea Strategy and Action Plan. The workshop took place on the eve of a high-level conference on the maritime security situation in the Gulf of Guinea, bringing together EU and African stakeholders.
The recent EU strategy aims at supporting the efforts in the Gulf of Guinea and its coastal states to address the many challenges of maritime insecurity and organised crime by fostering regional cooperation, capacity building and economic development of the coastal areas. At both events the message of the shipping industry was loud and clear: the situation must be addressed forthwith. The shipping industry is not only directly affected by pirate attacks in the area, but it is also an integral part of the long term solution as a vector of trade and, by extension, prosperity and growth. Regional specificities and different pirate practices mean that the solutions that have worked well in East Africa cannot simply be exported to the new piracy hotbed in the Gulf of Guinea. Private armed guards are less of a deterrent against heavily armed and more determined pirates, while the presence of foreign navies is harder to justify to West-African sovereign states. While the situation is complex, a lot can be done by raising maritime awareness, especially by making use of systems provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency, better coordinating the naval assets already deployed and aligning EU-funded with other initiatives that aim at capacity building.
ECSA welcomes the Gulf of Guinea Strategy as it is both a good starting point and a tool tailored to address the many factors contributing to the phenomenon of maritime insecurity in this part of the world. It is high time to turn it into concrete action and the industry stands ready to work on that together with the EU and African partners. In recent times, pirate activity off the coast of Somalia and in the Indian Ocean has experienced a sharp drop, while pirate attacks and armed robberies have dramatically increased in the Gulf of Guinea. In 2014, 1035 seafarers were attacked in West Africa according to the NGO ”Oceans Beyond Piracy”, while the real figure is certainly much higher, as most incidents remain unreported due to a lack of a trustworthy reporting centre. Based on report by: European Community Shipowners’ Association (ECSA)
EUROPEAN MARITIME DAY 2015 IN ATHENS
European Maritime Day 2015 was held in Athens, Greece, 28th-29th May. This year’s overall title was: Ports and coasts - Gateways to Maritime Growth.
EMD 2015 was the 8th consecutive Conference gathering over 1.300 participants from all over Europe, hosted by the city of Piraeus. At the Megaron Conference Centre, in the heart of Athens, representatives from maritime industries, regional and local authorities, research and European political bodies gathered to discuss challenges and possibilities of the future use of the European seas. We attended the conference and will report in the next issue of the CESMA NEWS.
INTERMANGER TO LOOK INTO MINIMUM MANNING LEVELS
InterManager, the international trade association of ship managers, has set its sights on examining two key areas which could have significant benefits for the shipping industry. First in its list of priorities is an investigation of minimum manning levels for different types of vessels trading on different trade routes and carrying different cargo types.
The aim is to determine whether and how these need to be reviewed, better understood for their implications to safety and efficiency and then discussed at flag state level to take into account required rest hours as set under the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC).The rules currently in place stipulate the minimum number of personnel needed to move a ship safely from one port to another. InterManager is concerned, however, that these rules were not just meant to set a crew complement number but were intended to also serve as a mechanism to improve overall operational status. Given today’s operating realities, this may not actually be what is happening.
InterManager’s Executive Committee agreed to engage with industry stakeholders to consider how best to ensure sustainable and safe manning levels, taking into account the current operating and legislative environment, onboard administrative burdens and fatigue issues.
For example, a VLCC calling at seven ports a year may have a minimum manning level of 18 but a smaller chemical tanker, calling at over 100 ports in the same period may be required to operate with a much lower crew complement of say 12. This has concerning implications when you consider the number of ports such a vessel may be visiting in a very short period of time. It is important that flag states look at each vessel type, the cargo it is carrying and the voyages it is on and to set up and agree on legislation to ensure there are always sufficient people on board to operate that vessel safely while catering for the necessary rest hours. It is also important to be realistic in approaching this issue, as it involves not only safety and efficiency, but economics as well. At the end of the day, InterManager is looking to drive sustainable solutions that benefit the entire industry and the general public.
A second area that InterManager intends to examine is the issue of “the paperless ship” and work to draw up guidelines aimed at reducing the amount of paperwork officers and their crew have to undertake while at sea. According to InterManager, the burden of administrative tasks falling on seafarers in today’s shipping industry is significant. Industry surveys have indicated that the volume of red tape is one of the factor’s adversely affecting recruitment. InterManager aims to improve this situation not just for today’s seafarers but also for tomorrow’s. These new projects follow confirmation this week that InterManager has achieved its pre-set aim of delivering proposals for a comparable set of operational measures to the shipping industry as a whole. Source: InterManager
RESOLUTIONS FROM THE 20Th CESMA GENERAL ASSEMBLY ON 16 MAY 2015 AT THE PRINCIPE DI PIEMONTE CENTRE, VIAREGGIO. +
Resolution nr. 1: Criminalisation of seafarers. The 20th Annual General Assembly in Viareggio, Italy, again noted that the problem of criminalisation of seafarers and of shipmasters in particular, continues to be a matter of great concern, although no recent cases were brought to our attention. CESMA urgently requests ship owners and/or operators to always provide legal assistance for masters, serving on their ships, in case of an incident as a consequence of which they are detained by local authorities, until, at least, a verdict has been pronounced. Moreover masters are urgently advised to consider taking a risk insurance, such as the Lloyd’s Insurance (Galleon Marine Insurance Agency) facilitated by a membership of the Nautical Institute, into consideration.
Resolution nr. 2: Piracy The Assembly again discussed the problem of piracy against ships in various parts of the world, with attacks on ships in the West Africa area still frequent and violent. Although CESMA is still critical about the use of fire-arms on board, it maintains its position, that it does not oppose the employment of officially certified armed guard teams on board, either military or private, respecting the respective legislation in the various EU member states. It will adopt a practical position in line with European and international organisations on the condition that the authority of the master is efficaciously maintained, even when fire-arms have to be used. CESMA also insists on exact rules of engagement to be observed under all circumstances.
Resolution nr. 3: Fatigue and safe manning. The Assembly again discussed the problem of fatigue in the maritime industry. The requirement of a minimum of three certified bridge watch keepers, including the master, on each seagoing vessel of 500 GT and more, is still supported by CESMA. It still denounces the flexibility clause in the Manila amendments of the STCW convention, enabling the system of the six on six off watch schedule to be continued, as it affects maritime safety and the health of the seafarers concerned. The introduction of the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) can only have a positive influence on condition that lists, showing work and rest periods, and to be inspected by Port State Control officers, are correctly completed at all times.
Resolution nr 4: Safety of roro- and large passenger ships. The Assembly again discussed the safety of roro- and large passenger ships as well as car carriers. Disembarking a great number of passengers and crew in an emergency situation continues to be a great concern. Damage stability is still not sufficiently observed also with regard to new buildings, notwithstanding the Stockholm agreement.
Resolution nr. 5: Safety of life saving equipment. The Assembly again shortly discussed the efficiency of life saving equipment on board some seagoing vessels including incidents and accidents during drills. It again urges the IMO and flag states to introduce proper legislation to improve safety and design of life saving equipment to avoid fatal accidents. Recent accidents show that lack of training and unskilled board personnel are to be blamed in many occurrences.
Resolution nr. 6: Employment of EU seafarers Considering the shortage of employment opportunities for EU officers on EU nation-flag vessels, CESMA again appeals to EU ship owners to create opportunities for young EU officers to start their careers on operational level and allow them to obtain managerial level. Also for cadets to create berths on board, enabling them to complete their practical education and training and obtain their certificates. In this way maritime knowledge and experience within the EU maritime industry can be maintained. All efforts should be employed to interest young people in the EU to choose for a maritime career.
Resolution nr. 7: Illegal immigrants in the Mediterranean The Assembly noted with concern the situation in the Mediterranean where illegal immigrants try to reach Europe by using unseaworthy craft which sometimes, due to overcrowding and bad condition, require assistance from rescue vessels, or in many cases, from merchant navy vessels nearby. According to the SOLAS Convention, ships are obliged to render assistance and take the immigrants on board. This could lead to dangerous situations whereby the crew is outnumbered by the quantity of immigrants. Moreover their intentions and medical condition is unknown, as most ships have no professional medical staff on board. As a consequence vessel and crew could be endangered. The Assembly wants to convey its concern to the European Commission and Parliament, as well as the IMO, in this respect, including the difficult position of the vessel’s master if he considers that taking the immigrants on board might endanger the safety of his crew and his vessel.
Resolution nr. 8: E-navigation The Assembly discussed the possibilities of e-navigation to improve safety of navigation, as introduced by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). The various aspects were highlighted and the Assembly decided to follow developments.
Resolution nr. 9: Future of simulator training in the maritime industry The Assembly underlined the importance of simulator training in the maritime industry. However it rejects further exchanging of practical education and training by simulator training as stipulated in the “sea time equivalent” context.
(Viareggio 16th May 2015)
THE CESMA BOARD IS PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE THE NEW ASSOCIATED MEMBERSHIP OF THE ITALIAN YACHT MASTERS ASSOCIATION, BASED IN LOANA, ITALY.
The association counts 50 experienced shipmasters all with a merchant navy background and in possession of STCW certification. The head office is located at the Port of Loana and the member shipmasters all are in command of the larger type of yachts. The president is Capt. Gino Battaglia. The CESMA Council member will be Capt. Dario Savino.
Next year, the 21rst CESMA Annual General Assembly will be organised in Cork, Ireland, by the Irish Institute of Master Mariners (IIMM) on 12th and 13th May 2016 at the premises of the National Maritime College of Ireland (NMCI) in Ringaskiddy, near Cork.
(On the front page: Newly appointed captain Kate McCue as master of the “Celebrity Summit” (left) and right the Megaron Concert Hall in Athens, Greece, where maritime Europe assembled for European Maritime Day 2015.)
CESMA LOGBOOK (2015 – 2)
We were represented at the following occasions:
16 Apr Estoril Annual General Assembly EMPA
17 Apr Lisbon-Brussels Courtesy visit to EMSA
28 Apr Amsterdam Annual General Assembly KC Zeemanshoop
07 May Amsterdam Financial committee CESMA
15 May Viareggio CESMA Council Meeting
16 May Viareggio CESMA Annual General Assembly
28 May Athens European Maritime Day
16 Jun Rotterdam Symposium Nautilus
18 Jun Copenhagen Short Sea Shipping conference
19 Jun Copenhagen Short Sea Shipping conference (cont.)
FROM THE EDITOR
As an aftermath of maritime accidents, Voyage Data Recorders (VDR’ s) have proved to be important for determining causes. The London P&I club has called for greater familiarisation by ship’s officers and crews with the testing requirements relating to Voyage Data Recorders after two recent claim incidents, investigated by the club’s loss prevention team, revealed VDR malfunctions which were not previously observed.
VSTEP has recently installed a new simulation centre in the Technical University of Varna in Bulgaria. The new wing features a NAUTIS Class B DP Simulator as well as a NAUTIS class A Full Mission Bridge Simulator and a new ECDIS Simulator classroom. The opening ceremony was attended by representatives of the Technical University and officials of the municipal government of Varna. The new equipment allows the TU to proceed with a very extensive and state of the art curriculum of maritime training courses, being one of the most advanced training hubs in the region.
A Chinese company begins work on building an exact replica of the ill-fated passenger ship “Titanic”. The Chinese Wuchang Shipbuilding Industry Group is undertaking the construction, expected to be completed by August 2017. Tourists will have the chance to see what life was like on board the ”Titanic”. Passengers also will have the chance to experience the moment when the ship collided with the iceberg. The tragic moment will be recreated by a high tech simulator, using light and sound effects.
The EU Council of Ministers has decided to launch EUNAVFOR Med. This initiatives was strongly welcomed by several bodies in the European maritime industry such as BIMCO. The risks to the health, safety and security of seafarers who assist distressed migrants in increasingly large numbers play an important role in this welcome. Merchant shipping is not equipped to handle the humanitarian crisis at sea, caused by the levels of migration in the Mediterranean. It is legally and ethically a complex issue for the UN and the EU to address, but it must be tackled for the sake of the refugees themselves and the safety and security of seafarers and ships.
Carnival Corporation, the world’s largest travel and leisure company with nine global brands and a fleet of 101 cruise ships, is operating the current CSMART training facility in Almere, the Netherlands, since 2009. A new and much larger facility with capacity for training for 6.500 deck and engineering officers yearly, is scheduled to open in the summer of 2016. The Centre for Simulator and Maritime Training (CMART) signed a multi-million contract with TRANSAS utilize its state of the art simulators, the most advanced and innovative technology solutions available in the maritime industry. CESMA has been invited to attend the official opening in 2016.
Europe’s top human rights court is ordering France to pay 9 Somali’s, most of whom have been convicted of piracy, thousands of dollars each, over the way by which they were arrested following the hijacking of two French ships in 2008. Luxury vessel ”Le Ponant” was hijacked in April 2008. The 30 people aboard were freed by French special forces, arresting six suspects the same day. The Court found that the five days to place them in formal custody, was unnecessarily long. In a second hijacking, it took three days to formally place the suspects in custody. The ruling includes both those convicted and acquitted of piracy.
The London P&I Club has underlined the importance of proper enclosed space entry drills and awareness in relation to the dangers associated with entry into harmful hold atmospheres. The warning originates from a recent accident causing the death of two crew members on board a bulk carrier loaded with coal as well as a recent similar accident in the port of Antwerp.
AIMS OF THE ORGANISATION (abridged)
TO WORLDWIDE PROTECT THE PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS AND STATUS OF EUROPEAN SEAGOING SHIPMASTERS. TO PROMOTE MARITIME SAFETY AND PROTECT THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
TO PROMOTE ESTABLISHMENT OF EFFECTIVE RULES WHICH PROVIDE HIGH PROFESSIONAL MARITIME STANDARDS AND PROPER MANNING SCALES FOR VESSELS UNDER AN EUROPEAN NATION FLAG.
TO INFORM THE PUBLIC IN THE EU ABOUT PROBLEMS IN THE EUROPEAN MARITIME INDUSTRY AND THOSE CONCERNING SHIPMASTERS IN PARTICULAR. TO CO-OPERATE WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATIONS.
TO RETAIN AND DEVELOP THE HIGHEST MARITIME KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE IN EUROPE
TO BE INVOLVED IN RESEARCH CONCERNING MARITIME MATTERS IF APPLICABLE IN CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS AND/OR ORGANISATIONS.
TO ASSIST MEMBER SHIPMASTERS WHO ENCOUNTER DIFFICULTIES IN PORTS WITHIN THE REACH OF NATIONS REPRESENTED BY CESMA MEMBER ASSOCIATIONS
TO PROMOTE THE SEAFARING PROFESSION IN EU MEMBER STATES
ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: EURO 16,- (EXCL EURO 5,- ENTR. FEE) PER SEAGOING MASTER (WITH A MINIMUM OF 25)
EURO 8,- PER SEAGOING MASTER FOR ASSOCIATED MEMBER ASSOC. ( “” “”)
LIST OF CESMA MEMBERS AND REPRESENTATIVES
MEMBER REPR CAPT. W.VON PRESSENTIN TEL: 0049 40 384981
DEP.PRESIDENT: CAPT. G. RIBARIC TEL(GSM) : 00386 31375823 OBALA 55 SI – 6320 PORTOROZ SLOVENIA E-MAIL : firstname.lastname@example.org
GEN.SECRETARY: CAPT. F.J. VAN WIJNEN TEL: 0031 182 613231 JUNOLAAN 10 MOB:0031 650275519 2741 TJ WADDINXVEEN THE NETHERLANDS E-MAIL: email@example.com
HON.VICE PRESIDENT: CAPT. R. SERRA
HON.MEMBERS: CAPT. H.B. BOER CAPT. J. CHENNEVIERE CAPT. J-D. TROYAT CAPT. G. KIEHNE CAPT. W. MUELLER
ADVISORS : PROF. J. SPAANS CAPT. J-D TROYAT CAPT. J. JUAN TORRES
Opinions expressed in articles are those of the sources and/or authors only
MOTORWAYS OF THE SEA CONFERENCE (Sustainable Shipping for Reduction of Emissions)
The Swedish city of Gothenburg was the scene for the next conference on Motorways of the Seas. The meeting, named as GotMoS, again draw a large audience together with a number of excellent speakers from the political as well as from the industry side. Also administrators from Scandinavian countries were present to listen to a large number of presentations on the project which is seen as crucial for the future transportation of goods in Europe and beyond. As the name says, shipping is an important factor together with railways. The Motorways will connect countries and ports in Europe as well as “corridors” which will also make connections with ports in the Middle East and North Africa possible. The general idea is to clear the European roads from traffic jams and polluting trucks with other words to create a more environmental friendly and safer system of transportation in Europe from which trade and the environment will benefit. MoS will have to prove itself and we should not expect the system to develop in the near future. It will be 2020 and beyond before we see the real benefits. It also aims at better competing with international economic blocs as the America’s and the Far East.
The meeting brought together also a lot of stakeholders in the European transport sector. From them the initiators of the project seek to receive the “bright” and innovative ideas. Mr. Brian Simpson, former president of the transport commission of the European Parliament and ardent supporter of the project, expect stakeholders to ”deliver”, meaning that any new ideas also from CESMA member associations are welcome to be included in the outcome of the project. In general it involves also a better integration of ports in the transport system together with the connecting railways to bring goods further inland. Also the inland waterway traffic is playing an important role in the entire setup.
The conference in Gothenburg concentrated on the environmental aspects of the transport, especially the consumption of vessels which is known to polluting especially because of the percentage of sulphur in the exhaust gasses of ships.
On 1 January 2015 the new EU sulphur directive will come into force, stipulating that the percentage of sulphur measured from the exhaust gasses must not exceed 0,1%, implying that ships cannot consume the, up to now, used heavy fuel which is one the most polluting and cheap fuels in the market. As most ships are built to consume this heavy fuel oil, they will have to change over to the more expensive gas or diesel oil which will bring shipping companies into difficulties profit wise. During the conference possible solutions were widely discussed by experts from the oil industry, shipyards and ship owners. The main presentations and discussions concerned the three possibilities for shipping to adapt to the new regulations in which the European Commission cooperates by so called pilots.
The first pilot is evaluating the use of scrubbers. It involves a new generation of light weight scrubber technology. Installing a full scale scrubber on a vessel, operating in the Baltic and North Sea, depends on salinity and winter conditions with ice. Also waste handling is an issue. The testing is done in two existing RoRo ships operating in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. It verifies and evaluates the specific port structure and preparatory investments needed for a full scale implementation of the scrubber technology. It also investigates how a financial strategy and mechanism can be established in order to support ship-owners/operators in converting the vessels in their fleets into the new technology. It also gives recommendations to decision makers on how this mechanism can be formulated and eventually improved. In the meantime several scrubbers are installed on vessels operating in the SECA areas with financial assistance of Europe.
The second option discussed was the possibility to power ships with LNG. The pilot LNG is looking at designing and building small bulk/dry cargo vessels with LNG without losing cargo carrying capacity. The LNG tanks are carried on deck. There are also initiatives to convert existing vessels to LNG. The project is closely following the different stages from technology implementation at the shipyard via bunkering facilities to operational start. Problems are mainly the lack of sufficient bunker facilities although various possibilities are emerging for example via bunker barges. With the facilities now available bunker, procedures shall in fact have to be carefully planned. The first passenger ferry which runs on LNG was delivered recently. The ”Viking Grace” links Sweden and Finland.
Another possibility is methanol as marine fuel. The overall objective of the Pilot is to prove and showcase that methanol is an innovative, safe and sustainable fuel for shipping. It can in fact be already used in short term in the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) which is part of the Motorways of the Seas policy. STENA has reacted by planning to convert its Ro-Pax ferry “Stena Germanica” which makes a daily voyage between Kiel in Germany to Gothenburg in Sweden, to the consumption of methanol. The vessel measures 46.353 GT and transports up to 1.300 passengers, 300 cars and 300 lorries (3.900 lane meters). The design for the conversion is ready and class approved. The converting will be done at the Remontowa shipyard in Gdansk, Poland in the first quarter of 2015. Apart from Stena, the ports of Gothenburg and Kiel, the participants are Wärtsilä, Finland and Stena oil.
It is a sad story that notwithstanding all the efforts by the European Commission to support short sea connections in Motorways of the Seas, some shipping companies have decided to cancel shipping routes as a result of the introduction of the low sulphur emissions, specifically because of the short time they were given to adapt to the new regulations. This traffic is now returning to road transport which is the most environment unfriendly mode of transport.
We were alarmed by the recent disaster on the Italian ferry ”Norman Atlantic”, which caught fire during her regular voyage from the Greek port of Patras to Ancona in Italy. More than ten people are believed not to have survived the accident. The master of the vessel, Captain Argilio Giacomazzi, who left the ship after everyone was evacuated, will be persecuted together with the ship owner for serious negligence, breaking important safety regulations, forging passenger lists and manslaughter. During a safety inspection on 19th December several deficiencies were reported. The company had been given two months to correct the defects. We will revert in our next CESMA NEWS on this tragedy.
PROCESS CAPTAIN SCHETTINO IS COMING TO AN END
After many sessions in the Teatro Moderno in Grosseto, the trial against Captain Schettino of the ”Costa Concordia” is finally drawing to a close. Hundreds of witnesses and lawyers of those having an interest in the case, have been heard by the court. Many questions were asked and answered. A totally new investigation, ordered by the President of the court, in which Captain Schettino has given his cooperation, has taken place.
By being present at a number of sessions, part of the deliberations have been digested and by contacting and speaking to several witnesses of the accident, including Captain Schettino himself and a number of the passengers then on board of the ”Costa Concordia”, we now have a clear picture of the circumstances that led to the disaster and of all the events which happened afterwards. The reasons for the trial are well known and have been described extensively in these columns.
The consequences of the disaster were unprecedented. 32 lives were lost and the luxurious passenger liner was reduced to no more than scrap.
Our interest in the case was triggered by relatives of Captain Schettino in the first place. This was followed by a request for assistance from the shipmasters’ association of which Captain Schettino is still a member. (USCLAC is an associated member of CESMA). The main question was whether Captain Schettino would get a fair trial and if convicted, would receive a punishment which should be based on facts and not on allegations as expressed in the press after the accident.
At first, Costa Crociere, the ship operator, assumed a realistic attitude, commenting that a human error had been the cause of the accident and that the ship’s master would be held accountable, nothing more, nothing less. After a few days this policy was completely abandoned. In the media, big headlines appeared that the ship’s master was the only one to be blamed, that he was a coward who left the ship soon after the accident without caring for his passengers and crew and that his abilities were thoroughly questioned. He was even pictured as an idiot who could not be taken seriously.
Why did the attitude against Captain Francesco Schettino, until the accident a well respected captain in the Costa company, changed so suddenly? At the IFSMA annual general assembly in June this year, we heard rumours which brought some light in the darkness. A few days after the accident the top brass of those interested in the cruise industry is said to have met in London to discuss the consequences, not only for Costa and Carnival but also for the cruise industry in general. With the knowledge on the accident then, it became clear that apart from the navigational error which was the original cause, many other issues had become to light which played an important role in the aftermath of the disaster. In the meantime the company and IMO have amended a number of safety procedures which had proved to be insufficient during the evacuation of the vessel. Even the construction of the vessel, such as the location of the emergency equipment and generators was evaluated. Also the role of the local Coastguard was questioned. In fact they were in charge of the evacuation of the crew and passengers as soon as the vessel touched the shore near the Island of Giglio. We have seen images of coastguard cutters laying idle while people were in the water. trying to swim ashore to save their lives.
Was Mr. de Falco, who made an unprecedented remark to Captain Schettino to go back on board, already trying to save his skin? Is it a secret that the chief executive of the Italian Coastguard travelled to the USA a few days after the accident to discuss the entire rescue operation with the US Coastguard, experts in this field?
But what to do? The simple decision was to appoint one man as responsible and guilty for the entire disaster. A scapegoat was born. Prompted by the industry, all media in the world began to depict Captain Schettino as a scoundrel, a coward and an incompetent idiot who should never have had the command of a cruise vessel such as the ”Costa Concordia”. They knew that they sacrificed a human being and a career at sea, with the possibility that Francesco Schettino could await a lengthy prison sentence as he could be depicted as a criminal.
In this article we are not going to pose the question of guilt. That is for the judges in Grosseto to decide. A few statements during his deposition by Captain Schettino during the last days of the hearings in Grosseto might be important. He declared that his initiative to pass the Island of Giglio at a small distance was his decision and that Costa had no influence on his decision and had not been informed. He also declared that the officers responsible for the watch had not disputed the plan to approach the island more closely and made the original error, bringing the vessel at a dangerous short distance to the shore, closer than given in the voyage plan. Captain Schettino, in his efforts to steer clear of the island, did not receive proper cooperation from his bridge team. Therefore the officers of the watch, according to the opinion of Captain Schettino, are just as guilty of the accident.
During the recent yearly assembly of my Nautical College in Amsterdam, where school and class mates are meeting to join a traditional meal, the case of the ”Costa Concordia” was widely discussed. Many know of my involvement in the case and asked for developments. Curiously enough a number of experienced master mariners did appear to have some understanding for the actions of Captain Schettino and posed the opinion that reactions on an incident, as with the “Costa Concordia”, cannot be predicted and that every mariner with whatever experience, reacts in his own way. Moreover, nobody is trained for accidents of this extent because they very seldom or never occur and can hardly be simulated. It is very easy to criticize persons involved afterwards, sitting in a comfortable office, sometimes months or years later. (FVW)
INVESTIGATION ON FIRE “SCANDINAVIAN STAR” REOPENED
The Norwegian Ministry of Justice has accorded the re-opening of the investigation into the fire on board of the ferry “Scandinavian Star” in 1990. As a result of the fire during the voyage from Oslo to Frederikshaven, 159 persons lost their lives.
A Danish driver of a truck on board , who died during the accident, was said to have been the fire raiser according to the opinion after the first investigation. Various experts and relatives of victims have given to understand during the years that they did not believe in this scenario. They were of the opinion that the crew of the vessel had raised the fire, probably initiated by an insurance swindle.
From later investigations it became clear that the truck driver was already deceased before the fourth fire was ignited. Moreover, he could never have ignited all the fires, with his limited knowledge of the lay-out of the vessel, especially not in the short time span available.
The new investigation which will take a considerable time span, will be executed by the Norwegian police in cooperation with their Danish colleagues. They will primarily direct their investigation onto possible financial motives of the Norwegian owner of the vessel. The investigation in 1991/1992 was not specifically aimed at that possibility. The so-called evidence that pointed at the truck driver as the guilty person, will again be scrutinized.
It is evident that this investigation is directed at a possible criminal motive which caused the disaster. All other aspects of the accident which caused the death of so many people seem to be sufficiently evaluated, as far as safety issues are concerned, by the Norwegian and Danish maritime administrations.
(translated from SV)
A EUROPEAN ACTION PLAN FOR SAFE AND SECURE SEAS
On 16th December 2014, EU ministers have backed a set of actions to make Europe's seas safer and to protect the EU’s maritime security interests from the threats which it faces. The Action Plan, part of the EU's Maritime Security Strategy adopted in June 2014, takes a cross-border and cross-sector approach to confronting the seaborne perils which the EU is confronted with. The plan is also central to the EU's commitment to boost the maritime economy since investments in the European maritime domain can only be prosperous if the seas are safe and secure.
The Maritime Security strategy and its action plan is a response to the new threats which continue to emerge in the ever changing global security environment. The criminal smuggling of people, arms, or drugs is now more organised and more international than ever. Illegal fishing continues to be a plight on our oceans whilst terrorism and cyber-attacks are threats we cannot ignore. These trends jeopardize European and global maritime interests, as well as the prosperity and security of citizens at home and abroad.
The action plan, jointly implemented at EU and national level, is made up of 5 key strands of work:
1) Intensifying EU external action – a better use of the tools at the EU's disposal, including strengthened political dialogue and development aid
2) Shared maritime awareness and surveillance – focus on developing a common information sharing environment.
3) Capability development reinforced - for instance by promoting dual - use technologies.
4) Working towards a common risk analysis - risk management, protection of critical maritime infrastructure and crisis response will be bolstered
5) Strengthening maritime security research and training.
The Action Plan covers both the internal and external aspects of the Union's maritime security. Its guiding principles are a cross-sectorial approach, rules-based governance of the global maritime domain, respect for existing instruments and competences, as well as maritime multilateralism. The implementation of the 130 specific actions foreseen in the Action Plan will be carried out by EU institutions and by EU Member States. From the external action perspective, this comprises measures such as engaging with third parties on maritime security matters, further promoting the existing international legal framework, particularly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, contributing to maritime capacity building in third countries, as the Critical Maritime Routes Programme already does, to build on lessons learned as the Contact Group on Piracy off the Shore of Somalia, and to conduct operational activities including missions such as the counter-piracy operation ATALANTA.
More information: Action Plan as adopted by the Council (General Affairs) on 16 December 2014
EMSA OVERVIEW OF MARINE CASUALTIES AND INCIDENTS
The European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) Annual Overview of Marine Casualties and Incidents consists in a high-level analysis of accidents reported by the EU Member States. This first edition relates to accidents that happened during the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.
Following the entry into force of Directive 2009/18/EC1 establishing the fundamental principles governing the investigation of accidents in the maritime transport sector, EU Member States shall, among other obligations:
• Establish independent accident investigation bodies. Landlocked countries without a maritime fleet are not obliged to comply with this provision, other than to designate a focal point. This is the case currently for the Czech Republic and Slovakia • Require to be notified of marine accidents and incidents. This obligation covers casualties and incidents that: • Involve ships flying the flag of one of the Member States • Occur within Member States’ territorial seas and internal waters • Involve other substantial interests of Member States
• Investigate accidents depending on their severity. Casualties which are classified as very serious shall be investigated. Serious casualties shall be assessed in order to decide if the accident needs to be investigated, while it is left to the accident investigation body to decide whether to investigate a less serious accident or marine incident. • Publish investigation reports • Notify the European Commission of marine casualties and incidents via EMCIP
This EMSA-run platform relies on the competent national authorities to provide data. It is this data which forms the basis of the Annual Overview of Marine Casualties and Incidents. In this publication, the terms “Europe” and “EU Member States” are considered to be the 28 Member States plus the EFTA Member States Iceland and Norway. The contribution of Croatia is limited as it joined the EU on 1 July 2013.
A total of 5,816 occurrences have been reported to EMCIP over its first three years in operation, 2011-2013, and have been used to produce this publication.
EU Member States are increasingly using EMCIP to report casualties and incidents. Comparison of the notifications in EMCIP against commercial sources that record accidents, suggested that approximately 3.500 occurrences (ranging from marine incidents at the lower end of the scale through to very serious accidents) could be expected to be notified annually.
It should be noted that the implementation of the reporting of marine casualties and incidents into EMCIP has been a gradual process. While the data can be used to shed light on certain aspects of maritime safety, it should not be used as an indication of the full picture.
Over the three years under consideration, 228 persons lost their lives and 1952 were injured.
SMART MACHINES OR STUPID PEOPLE?
There are concerns that smart navigation systems are becoming too clever for their own good. As navigation systems on ships become ever more sophisticated and complex, there are growing fears they may be becoming too smart for the user.
At a recent conference on Navigation and Vessel Optimisation, the following question was asked: “ECDIS is intelligent, but is it smart?” In their zeal to attract more customers, makers of these systems are adding ever more features, which may eventually end up confusing users.
There needs to be an emphasis on proper training, indeed every change in technology has inherent risks that need to be managed. With the most advanced forms of navigation gear there are options galore, with most having super sophisticated options…but it has to be remembered that navigators can only choose the right one if they are properly trained.
In just a few short years we have leapt from two-dimensional Admiralty paper charts, which Nelson would have recognised, through to new systems which can display up to 256 layers of detail. Such massive strides in information provision and management must have a knock on effect.
Often the only person deciding which display to use is the officer of the watch, they will have their preferences – which is only right – they are professionals after all. But there are concerns that too much information, or displays not geared up correctly will cause problems. This is especially concerning as there will be varying levels of competence within each bridge team. Many a shore based training company will tell you otherwise, but not all seafarers are as blessed with technical skills as others – there are young officers, old officers, savvy officers and paper-preferring curmudgeons – all need to be accommodated and assisted in making the decisions they need to make for safe navigation.
A few years ago, the Nautical Institute suggested an “S-Mode” or “simplify” button which could reset any integrated navigation system back to some most basic of information settings. At the time this idea was derided, now it seems time to revisit this. (From: Shiptalk)
WELCOME TO EUROPEAN MARITIME DAY 2015
European Maritime Day is celebrated annually in Europe around 20th May. This annual platform welcomes Europe's growing maritime community joining policy makers to discuss, debate and exchange best practices. The seas and oceans, and the opportunities they offer, are at the heart of the discussions.
This year, the European Maritime Day Conference will be organised in the ”Peace and Friendship” Stadium in Piraeus (Greece) on 28 and 29 May 2015. The Conference will focus on ports and coasts as engines for Blue Growth. Piraeus will also celebrate its maritime community on 30 and 31 May. The conference is hosted by the Ministry of Shipping, Maritime Affairs and the Aegean and the Municipality of Piraeus.
As every year, high level sessions and stakeholder workshops, as well as exhibitions, public happenings and networking events will be organised.
MINISTRY OF SHIPPING MARITIME AFFAIRS AND THE AEGEAN
EUROPEAN PROJECT ”IPATCH” (Intelligent Piracy Avoidance using Threat detection and Countermeasure Heuristics)
Co-funded by the European Commission’s 7 th Framework Programme, the IPATCH research project addresses Security Topic SEC- 2013.2.4-2: Non-military protection measures for merchant shipping against piracy. IPATCH is tackling the issue of modern piracy and the challenges faced by merchant shipping in keeping crews safe whilst minimising costs. IPATCH will provide ships with new technology for enhanced early detection of piracy threats and real-time decision support for utilising countermeasures appropriately, effectively and safely if they come under attack.
The end of the 20th Century has seen an unprecedented resurgence of piracy. In particular, the breakdown of governments and the ensuing lack of “law and order” in African nations have turned the Gulf of Aden and, more recently, the Gulf of Guinea into some of the world’s most dangerous places for commercial and private vessels. Piracy is also on the rise in other regions of the world, including South East Asia and South America. The international community has reacted to these threats with an increased military presence but the immense costs of these operations demand that further non-military options need to be explored.
Recent years have seen an increase in the use of private maritime security companies on board ships. Whilst effective, these companies often act in a legal “grey area”, and the high cost and risk of escalation of violence means they are not a viable solution for all shipping companies. More generally, a comprehensive analysis of available countermeasures is lacking, and inappropriate use can result in unnecessary extra cost for shipping companies and can actually place the ship and its crew at further risk.
IPATCH seeks to address these challenges by first performing an in-depth analysis of the effectiveness and costs – including the legal, ethical and societal implications – of piracy countermeasures. This analysis will be based on historical data, expert knowledge and consultation with shipping companies and other stakeholders. The results from this analysis will be compiled in a manual to provide well-founded and quantified recommendations to the industry, extending and complementing the IMO’s Best Management Practices. Finally, IPATCH will develop an on-board system for the early detection and classification of piracy threats with a decision support tool to assist the crew in making critical decisions on what actions to take for a given scenario.
Towards the end of the project, a demonstration of automated detection and decision support for piracy threats will be carried out on board a real vessel and threat scenarios will be simulated in order to evaluate the performance of different aspects of the system. The three-year, €4.2M project started in April 2014 and receives around €3M funding from the European Commission. The project consortium consists of 9 companies from around Europe:
• BMT Group Ltd (United Kingdom)
• Totalforsvarets Forskningsinstitut (Sweden)
• University of Reading (United Kingdom)
• ITTI Sp. z o.o. (Poland)
• Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Italy)
• Sagem Défense Sécurité (France)
• Termisk Systemteknik i Sverige AB (Sweden)
• Université de Namur ASBL (Belgium)
• Foinikas Shipping Company NE (Greece)
For more information, please visit the website: www.ipatchproject.e
RANSOM BAN AND PIRACY FEARS
Britain is moving to ban insurance companies from paying for terrorist ransoms. The legislation change will prevent insurers from making ransom payments to terrorist groups to free captives.
The killing of hostages by the Islamic State has stiffened the resolve of nations which refuse to negotiate with terrorists, or to make ransom payments. They are now asserting that such payments should be illegal because they fund terrorism. With other states taking a different approach, the debate over the legality of ransom payments has been reignited. Lawyers have been quick to remind the shipping industry that certain ransom payments are permissible under UK law following and it has been previously held that such payments were not illegal and not contrary to public policy. However, in cases where a ransom payment may go towards funding terrorism, anyone involved in the transaction could be violating a range of laws – namely, the UK Terrorism Act 2000.
It has long been seen that piracy does appear to be removed from terrorism – but it seems the agenda of many politicians is to rather simplistically lump all such problems together. Unions and welfare agencies have spoken out too, and they believe a ban could also have a devastating effect on global trade and industry, if the capability to free hostages is removed, the risk of capture and almost certain death may well be too much for seafarers to bear, or indeed shipping companies to accept.
There are fears the spread of a ban into piracy domains, would likely lead to ransom payments being driven underground. We would lose the ability to track them and thus to capture and prosecute the pirates who kidnap seafarers. All in all, the basic premise of stopping terrorists receiving cash is a fair one – but any suggestion that piracy is lumped into the equation would be dangerous, inflammatory and plain wrong. Not paying ransom to terrorist kidnappers is an efficient solution: It has been proved to reduce the number of hostages taken. Except that maybe it isn’t the best solution. It is to be hoped that someone in the decision chain knows the difference between terrorists and pirates.
EU COUNTER PIRACY OPERATION EXTENDED
The EU Council of Ministers has extended the EU’s counter-piracy Operation Atalanta by two more years, until 12 December 2016. The Operation’s main focus is the protection of World Food Programme vessels, delivering humanitarian aid to Somalia. Moreover the deterrence, repression and disruption of piracy off the Somali coast. In addition, Operation Atalanta contributes to the monitoring of fishing activities off the coast of Somalia. Despite the significant progress that has been achieved off the coast of Somalia, since the operation was launched in 2008, it is widely recognized that the threat from piracy remains; the pirate business model is fractured but not broken.
The Council has therefore added certain secondary tasks to the Operation’s mandate. EU Naval Force will now contribute, within existing means and capabilities, more widely to the EU’s comprehensive approach to Somalia, including in support of the EU Special Representative for the Horn of Africa. It will also be able to contribute to other relevant international community activities helping to address the root causes of piracy in Somalia. In this respect, the operation could, for example, provide logistical support, expertise or training at sea for other EU actors, in particular the EU mission on regional maritime capacity building (EUCAP NESTOR). In addition, Operation Atalanta can also support the EU Training Mission (EUTM) Somalia.
“EU Operation Atalanta has considerably helped in reducing piracy off the Somali coast. We must maintain the pressure on pirates to help ensuring security in the Horn of Africa. This is in our mutual interest”, EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini said. “The EU Naval Force will now also contribute to addressing the root causes of piracy,” she added.The common costs of EU Naval Force for the two years 2015 and 2016 are estimated at €14.7 million. The operation is currently commanded by Major General Martin Smith MBE of the UK Royal Marines. Together with 21 EU member states, two non-EU countries currently contribute to Operation Atalanta. (Source : MAREX)
SAN GIUSTO AWARDS PRESENTED IN TRIESTE
On 12th December, Italia Marittima, former Lloyd Triestino, hosted the ceremony of plaques "San Giusto 2014, recognition that "Captains’ and Masters’ Association of Trieste" offers annually to the most deserving graduates of the local Nautical Institute. Five best students of the same school-year were also awarded by the "Foundation Brovedani".
The event, which was held at the conference hall of Italia Marittima (Evergreen Group), was attended by the top management of this Company, Wärtsilä Italia, Coast-Guard of the Port of Trieste, the SIOT, CEO’s of Tripmare and Ocean, the International Propeller Club, the deputy President Capt. Giorgio Ribaric, on behalf of CESMA, Leadership and teachers of the Trieste Nautical Institute together with a large audience of participants.
The initiative was made possible thanks to the sponsorship of numerous sponsors, including Italia Marittima and Wärtsilä Italia again, Fincantieri, Siot, Tripmare, Ocean and the International Propeller Club and was promoted by our Captains’ Association. It marks the deep collaboration, from the starting of the annual event, between the latter and the historic Shipping Company of Trieste. Furthermore, this year, the Italia Marittima will have on board of a company vessel a cadet, newly graduated and awarded with the Targa St. Giusto. (Capt. M. Carbolante)
20 YEARS SHIPPING COURSE OF LECTURE
At the 19th /20th of November 2014, the 20th Course of Lecture for shipping took place at Rostock-Warnemünde. This event was organized by the shipping- institute part of the High School Wismar. The main theme of the year 2014: „Intended challenges of the shipping“
Most speakers are professors at the above- mentioned shipping-institute at Warnemünde. At first we heard a lecture with the title:
„The Future is not waiting: Safe maritime traffic with unmanned vessels ?“
At next speaker gave a lecture with the topic:
„Innovation-pusher pilot: Digitalization in relation with German pilots“
Next to this lecture a member of the German company „Aida Cruises“ spoke about a company owned leading centre with the title:
„ Problems and intentions of a company-owned leading centre at the example of „Aida Cruises“
Also very interesting was the lecture with the topic:
„Positive aspects of the „Human Factor“ on the bridge by the leading team(Captain and officers )“
The German Navy presented a lecture with the title:
„ Organisation of the bridge team during transit-voyages“
This lecture showed us, that the commander of warships has much more personnel on the bridge than a captain or leading officer on a cargo/passenger vessel. In the afternoon we listened following interesting lectures: Shipping Institute Warnemuende
At first one with the heading:
„Greatness-increase of containervessels – a critical reflection“
This lecture we heard in connection with the next:
„Increase-limits of the international harbours“
Both speeches showed us that the size-increase of containerships is not finished up to now. In the short future the world will see ships with more as 20.000 TEU´s. This increase requires a new policy from the ports. The terminals have to have enough container places at their disposal for a smooth cargo (container) handling. That will be a great task for international ports and not all ports can solve this problem in time.
The next two lecture concerned the ”perfect collision-warning”. These lectures were a little bit difficult to understand, because they were very theoretical. Lastly we heard, in late afternoon, to lectures with the headings: „Leadership: Requirements in the bridge leading team“
and to conclude a lecture presented by a female lawyer (very interesting) with the title: „ Evacuation of passenger ships – a juridical disaster“
The second day was reserved for technical problems with a panel discussion about the power efficiency of ship’s engines.
- Practical demonstration of a gasmotor, followed by a demonstration of a dieselmotor. If you want know some more, please look at the internet side: www.schiffahrtsinstitut.de
Capt.Wolf von Pressentin
20th CESMA ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The 20th CESMA Annual General Assembly will be organised in the ancient city of Viareggio in Italy at the invitation of the Italian shipmasters’ association USCLAC on 15 and 16 May 2015 (Friday and Saturday). The Council Meeting and General Assembly will be held at the ”Principe Piemonte”. The Assembly on Saturday in the afternoon will be preceded in the morning by a seminar on a number of interesting subjects. Complete programme will be advised in due time.
Viareggio can be easily reached via the international airport of Pisa. The town originates from a castle that was built in the year 1172 by the cities of Genoa and Lucca as defence against the city of Pisa. It is specially known as the birthplace of the composer Puccini.
Your hosts will be senior President of USCLAC, Captain Nobile and Captain Claudio Tomei.
FROM THE EDITOR
• During the first twelve months since the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC 2006) entered into force, 113 ships were detained by one of the Paris MoU Authorities for MLC-related deficiencies. This represents 17,4% percent of the total number of detentions (649). During this first year 7,4 percent (3.447) of the total number of 46.798 deficiencies recorded was linked to the MLC. Most deficiencies were most frequently recorded in the areas payment of wages, manning levels, health and safety and accident prevention, food and catering, accommodation and hours of work or rest (7,7 %).
• A recent tragic accident on board the cruise-vessel ”Coral Princess”, has again shown that concerns by CESMA as repeatedly voiced during Assemblies are still necessary. It is still lacking decent proper design, maintenance and sufficient training by the crew. The designated working group at IMO is once again invited to come forward with proper legislation to prevent more accidents and casualties among ship’s crews.
• Experts have warned that terrorists are aiming at executing strategic attacks on choke-points of oil shipments. The resurgence of Al-Qaeda and affiliate organisations is occurring alongside some of the world’s most strategically vulnerable and crowded waterways. Terrorists have the potential to do real harm to maritime activity in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean and particularly in the key strategic choke points namely the Straits of Hormuz, the Suez Canal or the Bab El Mendeb Strait. While Al-Qaeda specifically threatened oil tankers, large cargo ships and cruise liners could also be at risk.
• Lloyd’s Register predicts that mega container ships, capable of carrying 24.000 TEU, will soon be plying the world’s oceans. Only eight years ago, researchers were looking at Malaccamaxes, 18.000 TEU vessels which were able to transit the Malacca Strait and received negative reactions. Since then, according to Lloyd’s, several conditions have developed to the extent that ships of 24.000 TEU will become a possibility. However a representative of Lloyd’s have stressed that there are still safety and technical challenges for a ship of that size, in particular the size of port terminals and bridges that span certain waterways, such as the Suez Canal.
• The last session in 2014 in the trial against captain Schettino of the Costa Concordia took place in Grosseto, Italy, on 1rst December. The final verdict is expected early next year.
• The European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) have selected the new unmanned aerial system ARS Life Ray, developed by technological group TEKEVER, to create the first European maritime surveillance system composed of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS).
• The Belgian Council of Ministers has approved a royal decree which stipulates that the law of 16th January 2013, which includes several measures to combat piracy, will be continued until 31rst December 2016. This law permits ship owners to employ certified private security guard teams to protect the crew on a ship against maritime piracy.
• The Safety Council of the United Nations has adopted resolution 2184 which aims at continuation of the battle against piracy near the coast of Somalia. It calls nations to participate in the combat against piracy such as providing navy vessels and aircraft and by arresting skiffs, weapons and other equipment which are used for acts of piracy or of which can be reasonably suspected that they have been used for piracy purposes. The UN also encourages judicial measures to prosecute pirates suspected of criminal acts.
• The International Maritime Organisation has adopted the International Code for Ships operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) and related amendments to the SOLAS Convention to make it mandatory. This marks an historic milestone in the Organization’s work to protect ships and people aboard them, both seafarers and passengers, in the harsh environment of the waters surrounding the two Poles. Both the Code and amendments to SOLAS were adopted during the 94th session of the Maritime Safety Committee 0n 17-21 November 2014.
CESMA LOGBOOK (2014 – 4)
We were represented at the following occasions:
05 Nov Barcelona Conference EU Project MONA LISA
19 Nov Travemuende 20th Course of Lectures
20 Nov Travemuende 20th Course of Lectures (cont.)
20 Nov Amsterdam The Future of Maritime Simulation (NI)
03 Dec London Visit to TRANSEC exhibition (maritime security)
4 Dec London Meeting IPATCH project
13 Dec Trieste San Giusto celebration
17 Dec The Hague Anti-piracy debate NL Parliament
The Board of CESMA wishes all members, supporters and their families a happy, prosperous and healthy year 2015 and the colleagues on board always fair winds. This year we celebrate 20 years of CESMA.
As latest new we can inform you that all papers are signed for Captain Sobadzhiev to return to Bulgaria where he has to serve the remainder of his prison sentence. We wait for one final signature from the Minister of Government before he can depart from his prison La Joya. We are grateful for the cooperation of the Panamese IMO representatives in London who did their utmost to convince the Panamese legal department. Even the Minister of Foreign Affairs was involved in the efforts to bring Captain Sobadzhiev to Bulgaria where he will be re-united with his family after years of captivity in Panama.
CONFEDERATION OF EUROPEAN SHIPMASTERS’ ASSOCIATIONS
AIMS OF THE ORGANISATION (abridged)
• TO WORLDWIDE PROTECT THE PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS AND STATUS OF EUROPEAN SEAGOING SHIPMASTERS. • TO PROMOTE MARITIME SAFETY AND PROTECT THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
• TO PROMOTE ESTABLISHMENT OF EFFECTIVE RULES WHICH PROVIDE HIGH PROFESSIONAL MARITIME STANDARDS AND PROPER MANNING SCALES FOR VESSELS UNDER AN EUROPEAN NATION FLAG.
• TO INFORM THE PUBLIC IN THE EU ABOUT PROBLEMS IN THE EUROPEAN MARITIME INDUSTRY AND THOSE CONCERNING SHIPMASTERS IN PARTICULAR.
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REPORT ON 19TH CESMA ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY IN BARCELONA
The 19th CESMA Annual General Assembly was organised in Barcelona, Spain, on 16th and 17th May 2014, at the invitation of the ACCMM, the Asociacion Catalana de Capitanes de la Marina Mercante.
Prior to the Assembly, on 15th May, a seminar was organised by both the Nautical Faculty of Barcelona and the ACCMM, which asked attention for the advantages of simulators in the training of future navigation officers. It was organised at the premises of the Nautical Faculty of Barcelona, a division of the Polytechnical University of Catalonia, which houses in a beautiful building, a former ducal palace.
There were presentations by Dr. Marcella Castella, lecturer at the Polytechnical University of Catalonia on simulation-based model
courses to demonstrate seafarer’s competence. She pleaded to include navigation simulator sessions in refresher courses as mentioned
in the 2010 Manila amendments to the STCW 1978 convention of the IMO.
Mr Cees Muyskens of the Maritime Institute Willem Barentsz (Terschelling, the Netherlands) elaborated on the theme ”Navigation Simulators present and future”. In this context, IMO initiated an International Simulator Working Group in order to organise and structure simulator related matters for inclusion in the STCW revision.
Mr. Boran-Keshishyan, Head of Navigation Department of the Maritime State Academy of Novorossiysk (Russia) gave an overview of the present curriculum of the maritime education in Russia which comprises 5 years including 12 months of on board and simulator training.
Capt. Bill Kavanagh, CESMA councilmember of the Irish Institute of Master Mariners and lecturer in Nautical Science at the National Maritime College of Ireland in Cork, represented CESMA, by elaborating on “Design of bridge navigation simulation exercises for effective training and education”. Capt. Kavanagh also pleaded for yearly refresher simulator sessions for every navigation officer, including masters. These sessions should be COLREG orientated.
The afternoon was dedicated to an ”open table” discussion which was moderated by Captain Mariano Badell, President of the host association ACCMM. The theme was simulator time as replacement for actual sea time to obtain a STCW certificate for watchkeeping officer. After some lengthy and fruitful discussions, the meeting came to the following conclusions:
1. 12 months is actually already too little to serve as head of the navigational watch.
2. more simulator training courses are advocated as useful.
3. however not as replacement of actual sea time which is already minimal.
The next day, the CESMA Council meeting took place at the board meeting room of the Barcelona Port Authority (WTC). 14 associations from 11 EU nations had delegated representatives to Barcelona. Internal and husbandry issues are being discussed in these closed meetings. Important discussion was the intention to nominate a fourth member of the board as activities and expansion NAUTICAL FACULTY OF BARCELONA of the confederation mean too much work for only three board members, especially for the General Secretary.
It is proposed to nominate a vice president as is also mandatory according to the Statutes.
Previously this stipulation was ignored due to economic restraints as travel expenditure for board members is born by the confederation. Relating to this, it is proposed to slightly raise subscription rates. This is the first raise in subscription in 8 years. The proposal is accepted unanimously by the council members present.