Il nostro Collegio ha inviato le condoglianze, a nome dei Soci, al Comandante Leo J.H. Geenevasen , Presidente del NVKK al quale apparteneva Fredrik e alla sua famiglia.
Il CESMA ha perso una validissima persona che ha operato con abnegazione per il CESMA, della quale fa parte questo Collegio.
Qui a fianco l'annuncio funebre
ORAZIONE FUNEBRE DI LEEN VAN DEN ENDE
send you the translation of the speech ,our chairman capt. L.van de
Ende(NVKK) has spoken at the funeral ceremony of capt.Fred van Wijnen.
regards: capt. Leo Geenevasen/councilmember CESMA for NVKK
Corrie, family, friends and colleagues of Fred.
I speak on
behalf of the Dutch Association of Captains for Merchant Shipping and we
commemorate Fred today as he was within our association.
was not entirely unexpected when it became known that surgery was no longer an
option. Corrie when we were in contact a few weeks ago, you told me that Fred
was still busy with urgent matters for the European captains association CESMA
on his sickbed.
known Fred for a relatively short time, but in that time he left a big impression
on me. Whenever I met him, he would never let an opportunity pass by to talk to
me about his urgent plans. There was so much to do. Just like on the funeral
been a member of our association since 1993. In 1997 he took over the vice-chair
on the board that he held until 2009. In 2017 he said goodbye to our board.
taken care of the club magazine for many years as chief editor with great
success and for all his efforts and merit he was named Honorary Member.
of our association, Fred was for many years initially also our representative
in the European Captains Association CESMA. Our association was one of the
founders of CESMA and Fred was General Secretary from 1997. In fact, he even
played a double role until Leo became our representative at CESMA. He also
represented the association at IFSMA, Nautical Institute Netherlands, Royal
College Zeemanshoop and Schip, Werf de Zee (as director).
Alex remembered that in 2007 the office moved from Delftsestraat in Rotterdam
to Wassenaarseweg in The Hague. The carrying of the boxes and the archive was
done by the Day-to-Day Management Fred, Alex and Dave. In short, the move was
done by three captains of advanced age. It was quite a strenuous job for the
three seniors caused by the many stairs that had to be overcome by lugging the
boxes. The muscle pain lasted for days.
We got to
know Fred as a driven and very active person who was always ready to take on
matters that concerned the position and well-being of the captain. Even at our
75 year anniversary celebration, he seized the opportunity to ask some critical
questions about that position of the captain.
knowledge of the field was considerable and he was therefore asked for advice
on difficult nautical matters. Not only through our association but also
through our relationships the shipping companies and governments. He was a
source of inspiration and many ideas sprung from his hands.
network in the field stretched outside the Netherlands on an international
many captains as a counselor at the then Shipping Council and later the
Disciplinary Board for Shipping. If one stands as a captain in front of that
green table at the Beursgebouw in Amsterdam, a good counselor is extremely
important as support profession.
But he also
drew attention to, in his opinion, a number of unjustified convicted foreign
captains whom he personally visited and advised. This wat typical Fred.
contemporary terms, he was a relentless workaholic and always engaged in
shipping matters for which he was often found in Brussels and other European
his efforts have come to an end and we lost a driven, knowledgeable and fine person.
Fred van Wijnen will continue to remind us of the skilled professional brother
who, above all, has meant a lot to our association and especially the board members.
of our board and the members, I wish Corrie, the children and grandchildren
much strength in the coming time.
Leen van den Ende
- Chairman NVKK
REPORT ON ANNUAL CESMA COUNCIL MEETING IN KOTOR, MONTENEGRO ON 4TH MAY 2018
This year the CESMA Annual General Assembly was organized by the Montenegro Shipmasters’ Association in the ancient city of Kotor, Montenegro, a good example of a well conserved medieval city, full of Roman and Venetian influences and a rich maritime past. This became evident after a visit of the local maritime museum by the CESMA representatives, who had come all the way to Kotor to attend the CESMA AGA 2018. The visit preceded the council meeting in the afternoon.
The council meeting of the yearly CESMA Assembly, discussing mainly husbandry matters, took place in the small Church of Saint Paul, another example of ancient Kotor. The meeting was attended by representatives of CESMA member associations from 12 EU and future EU nations. Shipmasters from host country Montenegro, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Spain, Ireland, Germany, France, Belgium, Slovenia, Bulgaria and The Netherlands attend the meeting.
The CESMA council was shortly welcomed by the host, Captain Mario Pilastro, president of the Montenegro Shipmasters Association. Since last year, there were a few changes in the composition of the council. Captain J. Cortada Bover represented this year the ACCMM of Barcelona, Spain, as Captain Badell Serra was otherwise occupied. Captain Wolf von Pressentin again represented VDKS, Germany, after his recovery
According to reports from the general secretary on the financial situation and the activities in 2017, including representations by CESMA (council/ board) members, the year 2017 can be considered as extraordinary, caused by the health condition of the general secretary, who usually takes care of the greater part of CESMA representations. The relevant financial advantage will be added to the reserves, stabilizing the situation for the immediate future.
The important issue for this council meeting was the resignation of deputy president Captain
Roberto Surez, elected in 2016 in Cork, Ireland. On second thoughts, he could not combine his tasks
in his professional career with the activities of the deputy presidency of CESMA. For this reason an
election was necessary for a new deputy president. Three associations had presented candidates,
making an election procedure necessary. As members of the board were also acting as council
members (entitled to vote), the election procedure was handled by the hosting association, the
Montenegro shipmasters. After two rounds of voting, necessary for a normal majority, Captain
Dimitar Dimitrov was elected as deputy president. Captain Dimitrov has a long experience in the
CESMA council and will present himself further on in this issue of the CESMA NEWS.
Membership increased with two associations. The Asociacion Vizcaina de Capitanes de la Marina
Mercante (AVCCMM) from Bilbao, Spain, rejoined CESMA as a full member after some years of
consideration. The Helsinki Shipmasters’
Association from Finland became observer
member, as the first in this category. Being
a smaller association, the Helsinki shipmasters
choose for observer membership,
giving it the possibility to be fully involved
in CESMA technical matters concerning
the maritime profession and industry.
We are pleased to welcome the first
association in Scandinavia as our member.
CESMA now counts 20 shipmasters’
associations in 15 European maritime
nations. A number of associations is still
Communication with members and informing other parties has improved by the new lay-out of the
CESMA NEWS and the re-installation of the website. Other means were discussed but face book was
considered not applicable due to safety of information issues. We keep looking for means to reach
younger seafarers and interest them for association membership. Good cooperation with other
maritime associations and organisations such as IFSMA, The Nautical Institute, EMSA and ECSA are
important and will be continued as they could influence discussions and decisions on maritime safety
and security being made at IMO in London. Concluding the Council Meeting. The president Capt.
Hubert Ardillon thanked all participants for their input in the discussions and decisions.
The day was concluded with a visit to the maritime faculty in Kotor. The Dean of the faculty
explained about the aims and possibilities of the faculty. The visit was concluded with a visit to the
simulator which is very important for training purposes of the students.
INTRODUCTION OF NEW CESMA DEPUTY PRESIDENT
As newly elected Deputy President of CESMA during the 23rd CESMA
AGA, I want to thank CESMA members for their vote and to assure you
that I’ll make all I can do to promote our organization as professional
organization of European shipmasters.
As council member I joined CESMA in 2007,
being Chairman of the Board of Bulgarian
Shipmasters’ Association and since then I
attended CESMA AGA’s during all the years up
to now. Our association is not big but we try
to unite our colleagues from Bulgaria and to
express their voice in the European family of
shipmasters. We face problems, shared by all
colleagues, that young officers and shipmasters
are no longer interested in
participation of professional organizations as
they have internet, facebook, twitter and all
the other means of communication and they
think they do not need membership of
organization like ours.
During the CESMA AGA in Riga 2017, I established a face book group “CESMA” and tried to promote
a new way of communication between our members in order to be more attractive and closer to our
young members. We have to be in line with the new trends of the industry as automation,
computerization, digitalization, etc. At the same time I reconfirm my opinion, as expressed in the
previous edition of CESMA News of the necessity to keep traditional navigational skills and especially
mentality of maritime professionals that even on board automated, computerized and digitalized
ships we still need our safety culture and readiness to act in any situation of failure of electronic
systems, computers on board ships and other equipment and systems accordingly. Going further, we
have to transfer that safety culture to the maritime industry stakeholders and future shore based
captains navigating autonomous ships from shore and computers which will run autonomous ships.
In the last ten years, CESMA remained a purely professional organization, independent from
business or trade union influence. In that way, our opinion on industry or professional matters is
valuable as all members are non-profitable organizations and so we put safety at sea as our primary
goal without commercialization. At the same time we have to be careful to keep the attractiveness of
our organization and to be in favor of the daily life of shipmasters. Good example was the
intervention of our secretary general, captain Fredrik Van Wijnen in Panama and his attendance
during the trial of Bulgarian shipmaster Svetlozar Sobadzhiev, accused of drug trafficking in Panama.
Support of our members in their daily life on board as well as providing actual professional
information is the key factor to attract more colleagues to join our associations and to retain them
during their professional career.
TO BECOME MARITIME AMBASSADOR,
CAPT. DIMITROV MEETS MR. KITACK LIM,
IMO SECRETARY GENERAL
Being Deputy President, my intention is to assist in the activities of our CESMA board and our
Secretary General, representing CESMA on regional, European and international level. Our ambitious
number of resolutions requires a lot of efforts from either the CESMA board or all member
associations to get into practice our ideas and to be in assistance to all member shipmasters. Latest
discussions about training of young seafarers and necessity of harmonization and standardization of
different approaches in European countries and consolidation of our opinion, express how our
common interests could unite us. (Capt. Dimitar Dimitrov)
They describe the slowness of the Italian authorities in
renewing essential certificates as a bureaucratic disorder
which is putting seafarers’ jobs in danger. Therefore they
request for an urgent action to be taken by the Italian
transport ministry. The problems have been raised in the
European Parliament by Italian MEP Mrs Laura Ferrara,
highlighting concerns that the gap between international
regulations and stricter standards imposed by Italian
legislation is making it extremely complicated for the
country’s seafarers to update and renew certificates.
European transport commissioner Mrs. Violeta Bulc commented that the European Commission
has initiated an infringement procedure against the state of Italy as a result of ”outstanding
deficiencies in the application of a EU directive covering maritime education and training
programmes, including problems with course designs, review and approval, recognition of
certificates, certification and endorsement for engineer officers at management level and
requirements for certification”.
As a result there is a very real risk that thousands of Italian seafarers could lose their jobs as a
consequence of problems with the issue of internationally approved sea safety certificates. The
Italian ministry of transport’s slowness in organising and approving national courses is creating
serious difficulties. It is unacceptable that many seafarers have already paid 1.000 euro for an update
course or 2.000 euro for a basic certificate and are still waiting for further developments.
The European Commission has also accused Italy of failing to provide full information on what steps
it has taken to implement the EU directive on the Maritime Labour Convention and has warned that
it may refer the case to the European Court of Justice.
RESOLUTIONS FROM 23rd CESMA AGA ON 5 th MAY 2018 AT THE CATTARO HOTEL IN KOTOR, MONTENEGRO.
Resolution nr. 1: Criminalisation of seafarers.
The 23th Annual General Assembly in Kotor, again noted that the problem of criminalisation of seafarers and of shipmasters in particular, continues to be a matter of great concern. CESMA urgently requests ship owners and/or operators to always provide legal assistance for masters, serving on their ships, in case of an incident as a consequence of which they are detained by local authorities, until, at least, a verdict has been pronounced. Moreover masters are urgently advised to consider taking a risk insurance.
Resolution nr. 2: Piracy.
The Assembly again discussed the problem of piracy against ships in various parts of the world, with attacks on ships in the West Africa area still frequent and violent, while piracy in seas around Somalia seems to increase lately. CESMA no longer resists the use of armed security teams, either military or private but also advocates the use of non-violent measures which become more and more sophisticated as an alternative, in combination with BMP 4 practices. Under all circumstances the authority of the master should be efficaciously maintained, except when fire-arms have to be used. CESMA also insists on exact rules of engagements to be observed under all circumstances.
Resolution nr. 3: Fatigue and safe manning.
The Assembly again discussed the problem of fatigue in the maritime industry. The requirement of a minimum of three certified bridge watch keepers, including the master, on each seagoing vessel of 500 GT and more, is still supported by CESMA, although we see improvement due to better controls by some flag states (Spain) and Port State Control officers. It continues to urge Port State Control officers to intensify verification of work and rest periods during shipboard inspections. CESMA Supports the results of the Martha project.
Resolution no. 4: Safety of roro- and large passenger ships.
The Assembly again discussed the safety of roro- and large passenger ships as well as car carriers. Disembarking a great number of passengers and crew in an emergency situation continues to be a great concern. Damage stability as a result of flooded decks and/or holds caused by an accident, is still not sufficiently observed, also with regard to new buildings. Recently ordered vessels seem to show improvements due to lessons learned from the “Costa Concordia” accident.
Resolution no. 5: Mooring accidents.
The Assembly again expresses its concern about the increase of serious mooring accidents on board and ashore. Reasons discussed are the increase in sizes of vessels, lay-out of harbours, mooring equipment used and the ability and number of crew at the mooring stations. Another issue is disturbances in communication due to language problems.
Resolution nr. 6: Employment of EU seafarers.
Following the growing shortage of EU officers, employed on EU flag ships, also due to complicated procedures by some administrations regarding training and certification, the Assembly again urges EU administrations to support their respective seafarers by recognizing certificates issued by all EU administrations and enforcing simpler issue/renewal procedures for certificates of EU officers. CESMA again appeals to EU ship owners to create opportunities for young EU officers to complete their practical education and training and obtain their certificates. In this way maritime knowledge and experience within the EU maritime industry can be maintained. All efforts should be employed to interest young people in the EU to choose for a maritime career.
Resolution nr. 7: Illegal immigrants in the Mediterranean.
The Assembly again noted with concern the situation in the Mediterranean where illegal immigrants try to reach Europe by using unseaworthy craft which sometimes, due to overcrowding and bad condition, require assistance from merchant navy vessels nearby. According to the SOLAS Convention, ships are obliged to render assistance and take the immigrants on board. This could lead to dangerous situations whereby the crew is outnumbered by the quantity of immigrants. Moreover their intentions and medical condition are unknown, as most ships have no professional medical staff on board. As a consequence, vessel and crew could be endangered. The Assembly again wants to convey its concern to the European Commission and Parliament, as well as the IMO, in this respect.
Resolution nr. 8: Future of simulator training in the EU maritime industry.
The Assembly again underlines the importance of simulator training in the maritime industry. However it urges EU administrations to standardise exchanging of practical education and training periods by simulator training as “sea time equivalent”.
Resolution nr. 9: Reduction of paperwork on board.
The Assembly urgently requests governments and authorities to intervene in reducing the many documents to be completed by vessels before and between entering ports, as they severely increase the working load on board, particularly of the master, who is primarily responsible for the safe navigation of the vessel, especially in confined waters.
Resolution nr. 10: Safe construction of Very Large Ore Carriers (VLOC’s).
The Assembly, noting with concern the large number of seafarers missing at shipwrecks of VLOC’s, asks international maritime authorities, including the European Union, to not close their eyes on a kind of fatality that could convict seafarers aboard this vessel type to death. It urgently requests the European Union and its member states to push the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to create clear legislation on VLOC’s. This includes the prohibition of conversion of Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC’s) into VLOC’s, as well as their current operation. The Assembly also expressed concern about the liquefaction of certain bulk cargoes, such as bauxite ore, on bulk carriers, causing this type of vessels to suddenly capsize during their voyage and sink with all crew on board lost.
Resolution nr. 11: Decrease of traditional navigational skills.
The Assembly noted again, with great concern, the decrease of traditional navigational skills among younger shipmasters and officers on board. Recent development of electronic equipment facilitates position fixing by satellite systems. However latest breaches in cyber security, such as jamming of GPS, raise the importance of a backup system. CESMA calls for relevant action by the European Commission and IMO to maintain proper legislation regarding safe watch keeping and use of satellite systems together with traditional navigational skills. In this process, CESMA encourages maritime and qualification institutes to pay attention in their curriculums to traditional navigational skills. Also to the ability to change over in good time in case of a GPS failure. CESMA also encourages the present generation of seafarers to use all efforts, via mentoring on board or any other means, to transfer their knowledge.
Resolution nr. 12: Harmonizing of seafarer’s certificates in the EU.
CESMA urgently requests the European Parliament and Commission, as well as all maritime EU Member States, to provide proper initiatives to harmonize procedures for training certificates of seafarers. These include certificates of training and refreshment courses, issued by EU based training institutions which should be recognized by all EU member states, both for service on EU and foreign flag vessels, in order to facilitate mobility of seafarers and reduce financial burden.
Kotor (Montenegro) 5th May 2018
HAPPY INTERNATIONAL DAY OF THE SEAFARER
Each year, on June 25th
, the International Maritime Organization marks the
Day of the Seafarer as a way to recognize the global seafaring community, as
well as seafarers’ contributions to the overall global economy.
Each year, the IMO designates a theme which it highlights
through social media campaigns. The 2018 Day of the
Seafarer theme is “seafarers’ well-being”, which according
to IMO, is a topic that has gained strong momentum
throughout the industry in recent years.
“By addressing the issue of seafarers’ well-being and particularly mental health, this
campaign can inform specific strategies to tackle stress and other issues affecting
seafarers’ mental conditions – and make the tools available more widely known,”
the IMO said.
FAREWELL TO CAPTAIN NICHOLAS (NICK) COOPER
It is with great sadness that we have to advise that Captain Nicholas Cooper (Nick) passed away on 30th April 2018 at the age of 72.
Nick had a long and successful career both at sea and ashore and was fortunate enough to work around the world, gaining vast experience across the shipping industry. He was passionate about the maritime profession and continued to be a great supporter of modern seafarers.
Nick was a Past President of the Nautical Institute and was very well known and widely respected across the shipping community, resulting in his recognition with the Merchant Navy Medal for services to the industry and the United States Coast Guard Silver Medal for the demonstration of extraordinary bravery in performing a rescue.
Nick had great stature and a ‘commanding’ presence, speaking with great authority and was able to do so in a range of languages, including Arabic. We will sorely miss his presence, wry observations and extensive knowledge. However, we raise a glass of Shiraz to Nick and wish him safe travels as he starts his next voyage. Nick was also an individual member of IFSMA. His input in various meetings was highly appreciated. As representative of NVKK, I was fortunate to meet Captain Cooper throughout the years, He showed a keen interest in the activities of CESMA. His last command was on a Maersk container ship. (FVW)
MINE IN THE PROCESS OF HARMONIZATION OF
RECOGNITION OF EU SEAFARERS’ CERTIFICATES
Today, seafarers' training and certification systems in the EU are
regulated by Directive 2008/106/EC on minimum level of training of
seafarers and Directive 2005/45/EC on mutual recognition of seafarers'
certificates as issued by Member States.
In 2017, the European Commission (EC) has launched the auditing of the Community (EU)
legislation on training, certification of seafarers and mutual recognition of seafarers' certificates. In
particular, two directives are combined into a new Directive of the European Parliament and of the
Council by amending Directive 2008/106/EC and repealing Directive 2005/45/EC. The provisions of
mutual recognition of seafarers' certificates are also being amended. The EC has already developed
its proposals, and further changes are being discussed in the Shipping Working Party of the Council.
In short, the new Directive incorporates all the provisions of the
STCW Convention with minimal changes, specifies the procedures for
the recognition of third-country certificates and establishes a
legislative framework on the mutual recognition between Member
States of all EU-issued seafarers' certificates (the Certificate of
Competency (COC), Certificate of Proficiency (COP), Documentary
Evidence (DE)). This, of course, affects mutual recognition of all
Training Certificates, issued by Training Centres or Maritime
Administrations of EU Member States.
At this moment, there is the possibility to harmonize the procedure
for mutual recognition of EU-issued Training Certificates. In my opinion, the best option would be if
all certificates were mutually recognised, without any restrictions and limitations throughout the EU,
regardless of which EU Member State they were issued. It is essential that they be recognized both
for serving on-board EU flagged vessels and for certification and re-certification purposes.
The proposal, currently developed by the EC, does not have a harmonized provision for mutual
recognition of training certificates for seafarers' certification, but ONLY for serving on-board. This
does not address the issue of removing unnecessary administrative and financial burden from
There is a lack of logic in the proposal. The aim of certification/re-certification is to verify and
ensure the compliance of the seafarer's competence with the provisions of the STCW Convention, in
order to issue a new COC, on the basis of which the seafarer can serve on-board safely.
A COC includes competencies covered by Training (course) certificates, as is seen in tables of the
Chapter II and III of the STCW Code as amended and is also explained in the B-I/2 regulation. The
issuance of any STCW Certificate in any EU country (Training Certificate or COC) already attests the
compliance of relevant competences to work safely at sea. The quality of training is continuously
monitored by EMSA in all Member States.
If Training Certificates are recognised as good enough for serving on-board EU flag vessel,
demonstrating that the seafarer in these particular competences is capable of ensuring safety at sea,
why would it be questioned in the certification process? Why should the seafarer, in order to be
certified, in many cases have to pass the STCW regulated and strictly supervised (including EMSA)
costly training course again, in case if the course was passed in another Member State and a seafarer
has a valid STCW training certificate?
The European Commission, as an argument, mentions a questionnaire carried out in February 2018,
where the majority of respondents were in favour of the mutual recognition of Training Certificates
only for serving on-board. In my opinion, in the questionnaire, this question has been asked
inconsiderately or even provocatively, as it can be interpreted. It is also not understandable, who
were the 42 respondents to whom the questionnaire was sent. The questionnaire was sent to the
Maritime Administrations and 24 responses were received from them. Two answers came from ETF
and ECSA. Who were those other 16 respondents who determined the result!? Did all respondents
who replied, particularly these 16, are so competent in the STCW Convention and Certification
issues? Why has the principle of proportionality been violated: the same number of respondents
from each Maritime Member State?
Adopting the provision of the renewed Directive, in which there will be no fairly harmonized
procedure for the mutual recognition of seafarers' Training Certificates without restrictions on their
use, additional burden will be created for European seafarers, and it will call for their lack of
understanding and dissatisfaction.
I call on everyone, who has the opportunity to intervene in the process and to achieve a
fair solution, to do so. It's not too late yet, but soon the time will pass and we'll be fighting
the consequences once again.
CAPT. JAZEPS SPRIDZANS
CESMA COUNCIL MEMBER
PRESIDENT LATVIAN SHIPMASTERS’ ASSOCIATION
SPLIETHOFF USES SPOS
Dutch ship owner Spliethoff has reduced voyage costs through using weather
data from MeteoGroup for ship routeing. It operates a fleet of dry cargo,
heavy lift and project cargo ships, freight roro and yacht transport vessels.
To assist with route planning and execution, Spliethoff uses MeteoGroup SPOS Weather Routing
services, including the latest SPOS9 software. This has become a vital tool for optimising voyages and
maximising safety for crew, cargo and vessels. It aims to save time and fuel. SPOS9 is used on board
around 100 vessels in the Spliethoff fleet. SPOS lets masters navigate with minimal fuel consumption
by calculating and recalculating optimum routes and anticipating oncoming weather and sea
conditions. The software can also be used for other running costs and against estimated times of
arrival. There are built-in ship models to help vessel masters choose the best possible route.
Spliethoff is also using SPOS for verification to check the extent to which the weather forecasts and
predictions were accurate and to further optimise fuel efficiency. Spliethoff also interacts with
weather experts at MeteoGroup. Masters are encouraged to use this expertise for second opinions if
they would like to compare ideas. But ultimately it is always up to the master to decide how to
follow the SPOS guidelines, as they are the ones with final responsibility.
NO REGRETS OVER THE INTRODUCTION Of ECDIS?
In a few months from now, the phased carriage requirements for the
Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) begin to
become a reality and we can just wonder whether all those people who
so enthusiastically has thrust us into the E-navigation age with its
mandatory requirements at the InternationalMaritime Organisation,
might have the odd second thought about the wisdom of their decision making.
It seemed such a good idea at the time, with the manufacturers all making the running and the
hydrographers pointing to the availability of electronic navigation charts. Think of the ease for chart
correcting, the precision of navigation, the removal of doubts about dead reckoning, E-navigation. It
really all belongs to the 21st century.
These are still, let’s face it, compelling arguments. But did people who ran shipping companies
really understand the implications of what was being done and what it would mean for the way that
ships were manned and navigators trained when electronic assistance moved beyond a useful aid
and became a mandatory requirement?
Some see it primarily as a sort of extrapolation of the “satnav generation” of navigation with one’s
position on the surface of the earth determined with pleasing accuracy, with no obvious need to
learn either geography or navigation. And in the de-skilling that was taking place concerning
navigation, the challenge to make the E-navigation user interested in and competent with the
principles of navigation, became far greater. In doing so you could get away without proper
understanding about what the electronic equipment was providing for you. Only when they went
badly wrong, you would be confounded because there would be no ways to conceal your
The move over to “paperless” on screen navigation is indeed a very big accomplishment. In this we
can witness the work that is being done by organisations like the Nautical Institute, the IMO, the
nautical colleges and others.
However, there is a massive job ahead to provide ”generic” training to every deck officer on earth
to produce a new generation of young people trained in this new medium and then to ensure that
everyone is conversant with and can demonstrate competence with the equipment fitted to the
particular ship they are sailing in. Personnel people will be losing their hair as they work out whether
Officer A can be appointed to Ship B without a familiarisation course on the type of ECDIS of ship B. There are still arguments raging in maritime administrations as to the length of course that is
necessary to take on board the contents of the IMO’s model for ECDIS training.
Will it all be worthwhile? Some people argue that while equipment like the gyro compass or indeed
the radar and even satnav marked a step change in navigation, everything else is just bells and
whistles. They tend to deflect from the prime duty of the navigator to keep a good lookout,
sometimes glancing through the wheelhouse windows when they still exist.
GNSS INTERFENCE AND AUTHENTICATION
Many members of organisations such as navigators on land, at sea or in
the airline industry, hydrographers, landmeters and seafarers, who use
GNSS systems, such as GPS, have to deal with this problem.
We were present at a workshop on 31
January 2018 about the actual problems
concerning interference and authentication of the Global Navigation Satellite
Systems (GNSS). The workshop was
organised in the historic site of the
ancient Teylers Museum in Haarlem,
The Netherlands. The organisation was in
the hands of the Hydrographic Society
Benelux (HSB), The Netherlands Institute
of Navigation (NIN) and Geo Information
Netherlands (GIN). CESMA is a Honorary
Member of the European Institute of
Mr. Jaco Verpoorte from NLR (The Netherlands Aerospace Centre) gave an insight in the general
causes of radio interference and which tools we have available to cope with this problem.
The worldwide spectrum of radio frequencies is quite overloaded. It needs only a small deficiency,
causing you to end up in somebody else’s frequency space. So regulations and controls are crucial.
We do not only depend on GNSS for navigation and positioning. For example banking and telecom
companies use GNSS as precise clock for the synchronization of their processes.
GNSS signals are very weak, caused by the limited sending power of the satellites. Also by the
enormous distance of 20.000 km from the earth. Not all disturbances originate from human actions.
Also activities of the sun can hamper GNSS signals and not all disturbances are caused by humans is
wanton. Poor connections or poor protection means can lead to wrong signals in the frequency
bands. Disturbances which are caused intentionally are to be divided in jamming and spoofing.
In jamming, a strong signal on the spot or nearby a GNSS frequency is sent, causing the receiver of
the GNSS signal to be unable to find the correct GNSS signal. In doing so, the use of GNSS is denied.
Spoofing is much more advanced. Signals that seem to originate from GNSS satellites cause GNSS
receivers to be diverted, away from the original location. Jammers are very cheaply available on the
internet. They are often called ”Personal Privacy Devices”. Persons who do not want to be traced by
his or her employer or police, use this method.
It is possible to counteract against intentional disturbances by using a multi-constellation / multi
frequency GNSS and the protection of antennas. Also the use of additional sensors and building in of
“clever” filters in receivers. Even the use of completely alternative systems than GNSS, could be
considered as back up.
Translation and adaptation of summary of presentation by Mr. J. Verpoorte during the seminar (FVW)
CYBER SECURITY: IMAGINE THIS
It is a normal day at the airport. All of a sudden, the automated check-in
machines display a system failure. Travel apps on smartphones stop
functioning. The agents at the check-in counters cannot operate their
computers. Travellers can neither check in their luggage, nor pass through
security checks. There are huge lines everywhere. All flights are shown as
cancelled on the monitors. For unknown reasons, baggage claim has stopped
working and more than half of the flights must remain on the ground.
A radical group have reportedly taken control of the airport’s critical systems by means of digital
and hybrid attacks. They have already claimed responsibility for the incident and are using their
propaganda channels to spread a call to action and attract more people to adopt their radical
This was the intense scenario which over 900 European cyber security specialists from 30 countries
had to face on 6 and 7 June 2018, during the ‘Cyber Europe 2018’ (CE2018) – the most mature EU
cyber security exercise to date. The two-day exercise was orchestrated by ENISA at its headquarters
in Athens, Greece, while the participants either stayed at their usual workplace or gathered in crisis
cells. ENISA controlled the exercise via its Cyber Exercise Platform (CEP), which provided a ‘virtual
universe’ (integrated environment) for the simulated world, including incident material, virtual news
websites, social media channels, company websites and security blogs.
Organised by the EU cyber security agency ENISA in collaboration with authorities and agencies
from all over Europe, the CE2018 exercise was intended to enable the European cyber security
community to further strengthen their capabilities in identifying and tackling large-scale threats as
well as to provide a better understanding of cross-border incident contagion.
Most importantly, CE2018 focused on helping organisations, including the shipping industry, to test
their internal business continuity and crisis management plans, including media crisis
communication, while also reinforcing cooperation between public and private entities. The scenario
contained real life-inspired technical and non-technical incidents that required network and malware
analysis, forensics, and steganography. The incidents in the scenario were designed to escalate into a
crisis at all possible levels: organisational, local, national and European.
Mariya Gabriel, EU Commissioner for the Digital Economy and Society, said: “Technology offers
countless opportunities in all sectors of our economy. But there are also risks for our businesses and
our citizens. The European Commission and the Member States must work together and equip
themselves with the necessary tools to detect cyber-attacks and protect the networks and systems.
This is how ENISA’s ‘Cyber Europe’ exercise was born eight years ago. It has grown into a major cyber
security exercise and has become an EU flagship event which brings together hundreds of cyber
security specialists from all over Europe.
In the end, the participants were able to mitigate the incidents timely and effectively. This shows
that the European cyber security sector has matured over the last few years and the actors are much
more prepared. ENISA and the participants will shortly follow up on the exercise and analyse the
actions taken to identify areas that could be improved. ENISA will publish a final report in due course.
MARITIME ENGLISH PUT TO THE FEASIBILITY AND DESIRABILITY OF SETTING GLOBAL STANDARDS FOR
As the lingua franca at sea, English has been designated by the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) as the language for
professional communication on board merchant navy ships.
The “use of English in oral and written form” and “the use of IMO Standard Marine Communication
Phrases (SMCP)” are requirements of the IMO International Convention on Standards of Training,
Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978, as amended 1. Under the umbrella of
English for Specific Purposes (ESP), Maritime English has carved out a niche within the maritime
curriculum and has become a source of diverse research.
Notwithstanding the key role of communication on board, seafarers display a range of Englishlanguage ability, from non-existent to fluent, which is the result of factors such as mother-tongue,
country of origin and educational background. An inability to use (Maritime) English hinders the
seafarer’s performance on board. Despite the maritime sector’s ambition to reduce the number of
accidents attributable to the human factor, evidence shows that poor English language skills,
combined with a lack of (inter)cultural awareness amongst today’s multilingual, multi-ethnic crew,
still lead to miscommunication and, sometimes, to fatal accidents. IMO offers guidelines for the
teaching, learning and assessment of Maritime English but, unlike the aviation authorities, has shied
away from supporting universal proficiency testing.
This thesis sets out to examine the feasibility and desirability of setting global standards for
Maritime English. A survey distributed to deck officers in the Belgian fleet provides data on linguistic
and (inter)cultural aspects of communication on board, including a section dedicated to IMO SMCP.
An analysis of the data reveals the key factors with a negative influence on communication. The
ensuing discussion reflects on the specific profile of the respondent group and how this impacts the
data. Extrapolating the data to the international maritime community generates the conclusion that
setting global standards for Maritime English would, without doubt, prove advantageous.
This issue was discussed during the recent CESMA AGA in Montenegro. A remark from active
shipmasters in NVKK concerned not only the language ability but also the pronunciation of maritime
English. Especially seafarers from southeast Asian countries, The Philippines in particular. Especially
their mutual language exchange, although in English, is hardly comprehensible for European
listeners, leading to misunderstandings and eventual accidents or incidents. Training institutions
should be pay attention that maritime English should be pronounced properly, understandable for
The above is a compilation of a lecture by Dr. Alison Noble at the Antwerp Maritime Academy under
the title: ”Maritime English put to the test” on 5th December 2017.
The article was sent to us by Capt. B.Baert, Secretary general of KBZ and CESMA Council member.
NVKK CELEBRATES ITS 75TH ANNIVERSARY
The Nederlandse Vereniging van Kapiteins ter Koopvaardij NVKK, (the Dutch
Shipmasters’ Association), celebrated its 75th anniversary at the premises of
Yacht Club “The Maas”. In Rotterdam. Many guests, including HRH Princess
Margriet of The Netherlands and representatives from the Dutch and Belgian
maritime field, came to Rotterdam to congratulate NVKK.
NVKK was founded in 1943 in London (UK), during the Second World War, by a number of
shipmasters from the Netherlands who commanded ships that assisted the efforts of the Allied
Forces. Because of the German occupation of the Netherlands, they could not return home.
After the war, the association grew considerably to a membership of more than 700 shipmasters.
Presently, this number is halved but NVKK is still active and has a consultative status in The
Netherlands on maritime affairs and is often interviewed by media in The Netherlands.
NVKK is a founding member of IFSMA as well as CESMA. The secretariat is based in The Hague at the
premises of the Dutch Navy Officers’ Association.
Presently the President is Captain Leen van den Ende, (formerly SHELL TANKERS)
VISIT TO MV ROSANNA IN KOPER (SLOVENIA)
It is the intention of the CESMA board to be in close contact with the active
seagoing shipmasters. In this way we may find out what is important in the
eyes of the actual membership of CESMA. The best way is to go on board of
their ships and look at the real situation. We have however to be careful not
to bother shipmasters, because their busiest hours are after arrival and
In this framework, our vice
president Capt. Giorgio Ribaric
visited mv “Rosanna” in the
port of Koper in Slovenia on
th April. There was another
reason for him to visit the ship.
Her captain, Franc Rupret, had
been his cadet when Capt.
Ribaric was master on board
mv ”Izola” when we visited the
vessel in the port of Antwerp in
Captain Rupret, born in 1980,
finished his studies at the
Maritime Faculty in Portoroz in
2012. He received his Master’s
License in 2012 at the Harbour
Office in Koper. After his exam
he was promoted to Chief Officer on mv ”Portoroz”. After serving on several vessels as Chief Officer
he was promoted to Master on mv ”Rosanna”. Captain Rupret recently joined ZPU and as such is a
During his visit to mv ”Rosanna” Capt. Ribaric
also met Chief Officer Ms. Urska Weber, who
obtained her Master’s certificate in 2016 and
was promoted to Chief Officer on mv “Rosanna”
in January 2017.
Mv ”Rosanna” is a bulkcarrier with
registration in Monrovia, Liberia. She is built in
China in 2016 and measures 38.557 MT and has
a length of appr. 180 metres. She is equipped
with 4 single deck cranes. Owner is SPLOSNA
PLOVBA, an international shipping and
chartering company, based in Portoroz.
Capt. Giorgio Ribaric, Vice President CESMA
CHRISTIAN DUPONT RECEIVES AWARD
During the SAGMAS meeting on 28th February at the premises of the
European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) in Lisbon, Mr. Christian Dupont ,
received the award of Chevalier of Merite Maritime, presented by Mr.
Philippe Roux of the French Administration.
Mr.Christian Dupont is Deputy Head
of Maritime Security with the Unit DG
Mobility and Transport.
He is a former cadet of the Ecole
Speciale de Saint Cyr with a Master of
police, Security. In 1986, he joined
the French Gendarmerie Nationale.
Since 1995, after several posts of
responsibility in the field of security
and police, he was involved in the
EU’s police cooperation. He joined
the European Commission in
September 2002, as principal
administrator in the Directorate
General for Energy and Transport, in
charge of maritime security.
Mr. Dupont is notably the author of the Communication of the EU Commission on enhancing
maritime transport security. It included the proposal for regulation on enhancing ship and port
facility security, issued on 2nd May 2003. It concerns Regulation 725/2004. He is also in charge of the
Directive 2005/65/EC on enhancing port security.
Mr. Dupont takes part on behalf of the European Commission in IMO meetings related to maritime
security. During SAGMAS meetings he reports regularly on the discussions in IMO. (FVW)
EU MEMBER STATES PUSH TO END REPORTING BURDENS FOR SHIPS
Thirteen EU member states, led by Denmark, have called on the European Commission to
present an ambitious proposal on revising the Reporting Formalities Directive. The current
directive, once introduced to improve the situation, has instead created more burdens on
ship operators in the EU, according to Danish shipping.
The thirteen member states belong to a group of ambitious countries, willing to make right
on the original objective of simplification and to lead on the creation of internal market for
shipping in the EU. Presently captains and ship operators are required to report the same
data over and over and in different formats to every EU port. Sometimes even differently
in ports in the same country. The Commission proposal is published on 2nd May 2018.
World Maritime News
CESMA ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETING IN RIGA, LATVIA, ON 11TH MAY 2017
This year the Assembly was organized in Riga, Latvia, at the invitation of our member association, the Latvian Shipmasters’ Association (LKKA). Riga is the capital of Latvia and a city full of activity and a thousand years of history, with a rich maritime past. The meetings were organised at premises close to the waterfront and were preceded by a river cruise for all the attendants (including partners) showing the various aspects of the port of Riga.
The yearly CESMA assembly started with the council meeting at the Harbour Master of Freeport of
Riga Building, situated at the waterfront, with tugboats and ice breakers moored nearby. The Council
meeting was attended by 17 representatives of 16 CESMA member associations from 13 EU
countries. Shipmasters from host country Latvia, Spain, Ireland, Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, The
Netherlands, Slovenia, Lithuania, Croatia, Bulgaria and Montenegro attended the council meeting.
The council was shortly welcomed in Riga by Capt. Jazeps Spridzans, president of the LKKA.
Next president, Captain Hubert Ardillon (AFCAN, France) opened the meeting and asked the general
secretary to mention the apologies. Deputy president Capt. Roberto Surez, recently started his new
job in the Netherlands and had no possibility to attend the meeting. The Italian Yachtmasters had no
one available to attend, just as SINCOMAR in Portugal. We could welcome two newly appointed
council members. Captain Ivan Conev replaces long time council member Captain Dimitar Dimitrov
(who remains deputy) of the Bulgarian Shipmasters’ Association (BSMA) and Captain Ivan Sosic was
appointed as successor of Captain Ivo Kucich who represented the Croatian shipmasters (ZHUPK)
until now. Former president of CESMA and now council member of VDKS (Germany), is recovering
from a knee operation and was represented by Dr. Wilhelm Mertens, general secretary of VDKS.
During last AGA in 2016 various amendments and adjustments to the Statutes were discussed. They
will be inserted in the By-Laws as changes in the Statutes require a costly procedure at a notary.
Proposal was to incorporate the function of treasurer in the CESMA Board to give the function more
substance, eventually in combination with an assistant secretary position. The problem that the
stipulation in the Statutes that two members of the board cannot originate from the same country,
this with regard to voting, was discussed. It was decided that this issue will not be relevant as
important decisions will be taken by the council and not by the board. Herewith the amendment in
the By-Laws was unanimously accorded by the council. It was also decided to cancel entrance fees
for new members as modern communication ways have simplified administration work and make
membership more attractive.
According to the reports by the general secretary, on financial matters and activities, including
representations, we can conclude that 2016 was another successful year. Membership was stable in
2016 with 18 shipmasters’ associations from 14 European nations and a number of individual
members. A number of associations is invited and are considering membership.
To communicate with members
and inform other parties about
the activities of CESMA, the
upgraded lay-out of the CESMA
NEWS is discussed and considered
an improvement, although it
turned out to be more expensive.
The website urgently needs
upgrading. The problem is with
the provider, which is not inclined
to deliver the right transfer codes.
We are looking now at other
possibilities such as face book to
inform members and interested
parties about the latest developments
As also discussed last year, good cooperation with other maritime associations and bodies will be continued. Good ties with
organisations such as EMSA, IFSMA and the Nautical Institute, are important for CESMA as they could
influence discussions and decisions being made at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in
London where the final decisions on international maritime safety and security are taken. It remains
regrettable that the Honourable Company of Master Mariners, the only independent shipmasters
association in the UK, is not interested to join CESMA, especially after Brexit has become a fact.
Our sincerest appreciation goes to the
Harbourmaster of the Freeport of Riga, Captain
Arturs Brokovskis-Vavods, a distinguished member
of the Latvian Shipmasters’ Association, who was
our host and facilitated the premises for this
successful council meeting in Riga.
RESOLUTIONS FROM 22nd CESMA AGA ON 12TH MAY 2017
AT THE RIGA PORT AUTHORITY PREMISES IN RIGA, LATVIA.
Resolution nr. 1: Criminalisation of seafarers.
The 22nd Annual General Assembly in Riga again noted that the problem of criminalisation of
seafarers and of shipmasters in particular, continues to be a matter of great concern. CESMA
urgently requests ship owners and/or operators to always provide legal assistance for masters,
serving on their ships, in case of an incident as a consequence of which they are detained by local
authorities, until, at least, a verdict has been pronounced. Moreover masters are urgently advised to
consider taking a risk insurance.
Resolution nr. 2: Piracy
The Assembly again discussed the problem of piracy against ships in various parts of the world, with
attacks on ships in the West Africa area still frequent and violent, while piracy in seas around Somalia
seems to increase lately. CESMA no longer resists the use of armed security teams, either military or
private but also advocates the use of non-violent measures which become more and more
sophisticated as an alternative, in combination with BMP 4 practices. Under all circumstances the
authority of the master should be efficaciously maintained, except when fire-arms have to be used.
CESMA also insists on exact rules of engagements to be observed under all circumstances.
Resolution nr. 3: Fatigue and safe manning.
The Assembly again discussed the problem of fatigue in the maritime industry. The requirement of a
minimum of three certified bridge watch keepers, including the master, on each seagoing vessel of
500 GT and more, is still supported by CESMA, although we see improvement due to better controls
by some flag states (Spain) and Port State Control officers. It continues to urge Port State Control
officers to intensify verification of work and rest periods during shipboard inspections.
CESMA supports the results of the Martha project.
Resolution no. 4: Safety of ro-ro and large passenger ships.
The Assembly again discussed the safety of ro-ro and large passenger ships as well as car carriers.
Disembarking a great number of passengers and crew in an emergency situation continues to be a
great concern. Damage stability as a result of flooded decks and/or holds, caused by an accident, is
still not sufficiently observed, also with regard to new buildings. Recently ordered vessels seem to
show improvements due to lessons learned from the “Costa Concordia” accident.
Resolution no. 5: Mooring accidents
The Assembly again expresses its concern about the increase of serious mooring accidents on board and
ashore. Reasons discussed are the increase in sizes of vessels, lay-out of harbours, mooring equipment used
and the ability and number of crew at the mooring stations. Another issue is disturbance in communication due
to language problems. .
Resolution nr. 6: Employment of EU seafarers
Following the growing shortage of EU officers, employed on EU flag ships, also due to complicated
procedures by some administrations regarding training and certification, the Assembly again urges
EU administrations to support their respective seafarers by recognizing certificates issued by all EU
administrations and enforcing simpler issue/renewal procedures for certificates of EU officers.
CESMA again appeals to EU ship owners to create opportunities for young EU officers to complete
their practical education and training and obtain their certificates. In this way maritime knowledge
and experience within the EU maritime industry can be maintained. All efforts should be employed to
interest young people in the EU to choose for a maritime career.
Resolution nr. 7: Illegal immigrants in the Mediterranean
The Assembly again noted with concern the situation in the Mediterranean where illegal immigrants
try to reach Europe by using unseaworthy craft which sometimes, due to overcrowding and bad
condition, require assistance from merchant navy vessels nearby. According to the SOLAS
Convention, ships are obliged to render assistance and take the immigrants on board. This could lead
to dangerous situations whereby the crew is outnumbered by the quantity of immigrants. Moreover
their intentions and medical condition are unknown, as most ships have no professional medical staff
on board. As a consequence, vessel and crew could be endangered. The Assembly again wants to
convey its concern to the European Commission and Parliament, as well as the IMO, in this respect.
Resolution nr. 8: Future of simulator training in the EU maritime industry
The Assembly again underlines the importance of simulator training in the maritime industry.
However it urges EU administrations to standardise exchanging of practical education and training
periods by simulator training as “sea time equivalent”.
Resolution nr. 9: Reduction of paperwork on board.
The Assembly urgently requests governments and authorities to intervene in reducing the many
documents to be completed by vessels before and between entering ports, as they severely increase
the working load on board, particularly of the master, who is primarily responsible for the safe
navigation of the vessel, particularly in confined waters.
Resolution nr. 10: Safe construction of Very Large Ore Carriers (VLOC’s)
The Assembly, noting with concern the large number of seafarers missing at shipwrecks of VLOC’s,
asks international maritime authorities, including the European Union, to not close their eyes on a
kind of fatality that could convict seafarers aboard this vessel type to death. It urgently requests the
European Union and its member states to push the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to
create clear legislation on VLOC’s. This includes the prohibition of conversion of Very Large Crude
Carriers (VLCC’s) into VLOC’s, as well as their current operation.
Riga 12th May 2017
ABOUT SEA TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
Transparency leads to better overall decisions resulting in increased efficiency and, in the maritime industry, improved safety as well. Imagine a world where all the information you need is at your fingertips, updated in real-time. And where most information does not have to be entered manually but is collected from various data sources.
A world where the control of information still lies with the information owner and the maritime distributed way of working still remains. A maritime world where the crew focuses on safe navigation instead of reporting, where port calls become even more efficient and just-in-time, making maritime shipping the main transport option for even more goods. We have seen the development of new services in many different industries, and the maritime sector can be revolutionized in ways that we cannot even imagine. Sea Traffic Management will overcome many of the challenges of communication and information sharing between stakeholders in the maritime transport industry. It will create significant added value for the maritime transport chain, in particular for ship owners and cargo owners.
(ULF SIWE, PROJECT LEADER)
By providing vessels with the ability to see each other’s planned routes, navigators get a more complete picture of how surrounding vessels will influence their onward voyage. Using this data, other services are able to produce valuable information and offer advice to vessels on their routes, such as recommendations to avoid congestion in areas with high traffic, avoidance of environmentally sensitive areas, and maritime safety information. The information exchange between vessel and port actors will improve planning and performance regarding arrivals, departures and turnaround times. The concept, which is somewhat inspired by the European program for Air Traffic Management, is broken down in four key enablers: Voyage Management services will provide support to individual ships in both the planning process and during a voyage, including route planning, exchange and optimization services.
1. Flow Management services will support both onshore organizations and ships in optimizing overall traffic
flow through areas of dense traffic and areas with particular navigational challenges.
2. Port Collaborative Decision Making (Port CDM) services will increase the efficiency of port calls for all
stakeholders through improved information sharing, situational awareness, optimized processes, and
collaborative decision making during port calls.
3. SeaSWIM (System Wide Information Management) will facilitate data sharing using a common information
environment and structure (e.g. the Maritime Cloud). This ensures interoperability of STM and other
There is a living Master Plan for how STM will be implemented up till the year 2030.
Mrs. Cajsa Jerslef Fransson of the Swedish Maritime Administration during her presentation of the STM Validation Project during the CESMA AGA on 12th May in Riga.
ISM CODE UNDER ATTACK
THE ”COSTA CONCORDIA” TRIALS
The Italian Supreme Court has given its final verdict after the appeal of the master of the ill-fated Italian cruise ship ”Costa Concordia”, Francesco Schettino. He was sentenced to 16-plus years in prison, as the sole responsible body for the capsizing of the vessel on 13th November 2012, causing the death of 32 persons.
This was, of course, an important decision for Captain Schettino, which ended his career as a captain and seafarer and made him a criminal, now serving his sentence in the Rebibbia prison in Rome. It was also a crucial decision for the future role of the International Safety Management code, as the safety regulation for worldwide ship operations.
By studying the court proceedings from previous trials of Captain Schettino, several crucial deviations in the Italian implementation of the ISM code can be noted, compared with what is the most common international interpretation of the code. The company freed itself of the responsibility of the accident by making a plea bargain with the court and the payment of a 1,1 million euro fine, thereby leaving the master solely responsible for the accident. This is a very questionable interpretation of the ISM code, as the main intention behind the code, was exactly to clarify who and in which degree, was the responsible body.
The ISM code’ s third chapter is not clear about the sharing of responsibility between the company and the master. The code represents a paradigm shift as in most maritime traditions of handling shipping accidents the master would be legally identified as the entity of responsibility and consequently get the blame for the accident. This matter was subject to fierce discussions during the development of the ISM code in some flag states.
In a number of countries, such as Norway, this matter became a serious issue during the amendments of their Ship Safety Laws during the adoption of the ISM code. In Norway, during the public hearing, the Norwegian Justice Department requested a clarification of the role of the company as the legally responsible entity. It concluded that the company or its representative (to be held responsible), should be the same as the appointed company or its representative, as mentioned on the vessel’s Safety Management Certificate. This means that according to this interpretation of the ISM code, the master does not have ultimate legal responsibility, unless he is named as the responsible entity on the certificate.
According to the ISM code requirement, the task of implementing and maintaining the Safety Management System is a company management responsibility and verification, including monitoring activities, related to the ship’s operation, should be carried out by a dedicated person (DPA) with access to the highest level of management. The DPA has the responsibility and authority to monitor the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each ship and has to ensure that adequate resources from the shore based support are provided, as requested by the vessel.
The introduction of the dedicated person is a consequence of the accident with the ”Herald of Free Enterprise”, whereby the UK Transport Department failed to obtain a clarification of the company’s responsibility and liability. This is considered as a reaction to conventional shipping management practise, instigated by insurance companies. This via the common insurance company’s definition of the company’s limited liability, in which any possible damage or loss under the master’s command was regarded as master’s negligence and therefore not influencing the company’s state of limited liability.
The master of the ”Costa Concordia” was claimed to be solely responsible for about 100 deficiencies and omissions under his command. If this is the case, the company’s designated person, responsible for auditing and monitoring of the safety aspects of the vessel, should have identified and reported these deficiencies to the highest level of management of the company and instigated corrective action. However these aspects were not mentioned at all by the courts where Captain Schettino had to appear. (Based on article in Lloyd’ List by Arne Sagen (FNI), accident investigator of the Skagerak Foundation, Norway).
We are aware that after the ”Costa Concordia” hit the rock near the island of Giglio and the catastrophe which developed at a later stage, there was telephone contact between Captain Schettino and the company’s DPA. In all questions, the decision to act was left to the master, including the decision not to disembark passengers and crew when the vessel was still in open sea. Loosing stability by ingressing water could have lead to capsizing of the vessel.
FIGHTING FIRES ON BOARD
On 20th April the Netherlands Branch of the Nautical Institute in cooperation with the Royal College Zeemanshoop in Amsterdam, organized a lecture on fighting fires on board of ships. The place to be was the intimate conference facility of the College in the centre of Amsterdam, breathing an appropriate maritime atmosphere with many ship models and paintings.
An audience of about 40 of, mainly, ex seafarers, showed that the subject, which must have been an experience for many, is still found interesting. Recently there were reports of a number of container ships on fire, causing, in some cases, a total loss of the vessel. With a fire on board of a container ship, it is sometimes difficult to establish the direct cause of the fire because the contents of the many containers on board is often unknown, also because it is sometimes wrongly declared. Fires can also break out in the accommodation because of electric short circuits or in engine rooms, especially when the cleanliness is at stake because of oil and grease residues.
According to the STCW convention, all certified seafarers must have a thorough training in fire fighting, a course which has to be refreshed at regular intervals. They are however no specialists in fire fighting and lack the proper experience. Investigations after ship’s fires show that mistakes in fire fighting by the crew may lead to serious cases of injury. Not seldom, unnecessary risks are the cause.
When a fire breaks out on a vessel that is near the coast, assistance can be given by local fire brigades. When a fire occurs when the vessel is in open sea, advice can be gathered from shore how to fight the fire. One of the firms which is specialized in advising vessels, is Falck with its head office in Europoort in Rotterdam. Falck Safety Servies also specializes in training in basic and advanced firefighting for seafarers according to STCW.
Mr. Gert Jan Langerak, Senior Marine Firefighting Expert of Falck, presented the afternoon’s paper on firefighting on board. Mr. Langerak has a long career in firefighting, firstly as volunteer in his home village and later as professional in the Europoort area, at first in the vast petrochemical industry and recently with Falck Safety Services.
"MSC DANIELA” ON FIRE
He knew how to fascinate the audience by showing two films which showed what a fire can do on board a vessel. The accompanying interpretation was more than clear and gave much substance to reflection and questions from the audience. It was spectacular to see how containers after an explosion in the hold of a container ship on fire, were blown away over a considerable distance from the aft ship on and over the bridge.
On 3rd April 2017 a fire broke out on the 14.000 TEU containership ”MSC Daniela” of the Mediterranean Shipping Company on her way from Singapore to the Suez Canal. The fire started in the ship’ s cargo area, when the ship was about 120 nautical miles off the port of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Firefighting continued as the ship was brought closer to the shore. All 22 crewmembers were reported as safe. After the fire had been confirmed as extinguished, an investigation in the cause of the fire was launched. The Sri Lanka Coastguard, Navy and Indian Navy, along with smaller craft and commercial tugboats participated in the rescue operation. We were informed that 4 experts from Falck Safety Services were flown in from the Netherlands to assist in extinguishing the fire and take part in the investigation. (FVW)
The European Union (EU) Port Services Regulation (PSR) came into force on March 24, after it was adopted by the European Council earlier this year. EU member states will be required to implement the legislation within two years of the abovementioned date meaning that the PSR will be effective from March 24, 2019. The new regulation establishes a framework for the provision of port services and common rules on financial transparency, port services and port infrastructure charges. The PSR is expected to make it easier for new providers of certain port services to enter the market, creating a more level playing field and reducing legal uncertainties for ports, port service providers and investors. Furthermore, the new rules are expected to ensure transparency of port charges and public funding of ports. This would lead to better use of public funds and the effective and fair application of EU competition rules in ports. Pilotage is not included.
WORLDS FIRST ALL-ELECTRIC AUTONOMOUS CONTAINERSHIP TO SET SAIL IN 2018
The “YARA BIRKELAND” is set to be the world's first all-electric, autonomous shipping container vessel when it is launched in late 2018. While self-driving cars are regularly in the news, we haven't heard as much noise on the autonomous shipping front, which could have equally far-reaching ramifications.
Norwegian company ”Yara” has teamed up with maritime technology company Kongsberg to build the world's first all-electric and autonomous container ship, which is set to hit the high seas late in 2018. This is the current road pathway “Yara” uses – the shipping route could replace 40,000 truck trips per year. This hi-tech ship, ”YARA BIRKELAND”, will carry chemicals and fertilizer from Yara's Prosgrunn production plant to the nearby towns of Brevik and Larvik. It will first operate as a manned vessel in 2018, before transitioning to remote operation in 2019 and fully autonomous control by 2020.
The most immediate benefit of the new operation comes from a major reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions as the company shifts its product transportation from what previously required 40,000 truck journeys a year to this new, all-electric shipping pathway. "With this new autonomous batterydriven container vessel we move transport from road to sea and thereby reduce noise and dust emissions, improve the safety of local roads, and reduce NOx and CO2 emissions," says Svein Tore Holsether, President and CEO of YARA.
On the autonomous side of things there are still plenty of pragmatic and regulatory hurdles to overcome before there are fully robotic ships crisscrossing our oceans. Norway is at the forefront of working through these issues with the Norwegian Maritime Authority and the Norwegian Coastal Administration last year signing an agreement designating the Trondheim fjord as the world's first test area specifically for autonomous ships. We also recently saw Rolls Royce propose a vision of autonomous shipping where robotic ships with no decks were remotely monitored by teams in control centres on shore.
The advantages of autonomous or remote-controlled ships could be immense, with vessels redesigned for maximum efficiency by removing any need for human cabins or decks. With ”Yara” and ”Kongsberg” launching the first commercial, all-electric, autonomous container ship, it seems the gauntlet has been dropped.
Their expectations of a 2020 date for fully autonomous operations mirrors the date ”Rolls Royce” predicted last year, so it's likely a future of self-piloted sea vessels could be coming faster than selfdriving cars.
Following an initiative by the Norwegian Maritime Authority, among others, IMO decided to put the issue of autonomous ships on the agenda for discussion at the next meeting of the Maritime Safety Council (MSC) through the approval of a test area in another Norwegian fjord, the Trondheim Fjord.
The UK BMT Group has gained a contract to provide simulation programs to the UK government to improve ship accident investigation. The UK’s Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) has signed an agreement to use Rembrandt software for more enhanced and accurate visual reconstruction of shipping incidents.
”Rembrandt” is a marine navigation and manoeuvring simulator. Its programs will be installed by subsidiary BMT Ship & Coastal Dynamics and will help MAIB to use voyage data recorder (VDR) data to improve the interpretation of accidents in UK territorial waters. It will also be used for investigating accidents involving UK-flagged vessels worldwide.
A key and unique attribute of ”Rembrandt” is its ability to automatically input a broad range of VDR data including 3D, radar and bridge audio to deliver a more enhanced and accurate visual reconstruction. This is a critical input for the thorough investigation of marine accidents involving vessels worldwide, especially all vessels in UK territorial waters.
BMT has installed the simulator and provided training on the technical aspects and fundamentals of ”Rembrandt” for MAIB personnel. This has allowed them to understand the process of rapid model deployment and to perform simulations for both visual reconstruction, root cause analysis and lessons-learned.
The program can be used on a desktop, laptop or as a full mission-based simulator. It comprises a database of hundreds of validated ship models that underpins the validity of one or more ships in a seaway. With this programme the shipping industry is starting to prioritise high quality electronic track data gathering for use in accident investigation, conflict resolution and lessons learned.
Miami-based Carnival Corporation has opened its second Fleet Operations Center in Seattle that will be used to provide real-time support for the company’s 102-ship fleet. Carnival’s first Fleet Operations Center is located in Hamburg, Germany. A third will be added later this year when construction is scheduled to be complete on a Miami facility at the company’s headquarters.
The new Fleet Operations Centers, a first in the commercial maritime industry, will utilize a stateof-the-art tracking and data-analysis platform that enables real-time information sharing between Carnival Corporation ships and specialized onshore teams, designed to support fleet operations. The proprietary system is intended to significantly improve communication from ship to shore and provide new capabilities for the safe passage of ships at sea, as well as help improve operational efficiencies and support overall environmental initiatives at Carnival Corporation.
The advanced system, which initially captures thousands of data points and provides real-time analytics for 28 distinct parameters for navigational safety from each ship, focuses on the following strategic areas to optimize safety, efficiency and overall fleet performance. These areas include nautical operations & safety, which includes the capability to see real-time radar visuals, stability conditions, automation, the Safety Management and Command System, and webcams from each ship, along with GPS location, routing, ship conditions and weather data. Other areas include procedural optimization and efficiency, including speeds, navigational data and engine conditions, as well as sustainability, which includes fuel and energy usage, emissions, and water and waste management.
“Our teams have done a remarkable job in developing the most sophisticated and capable system in the cruise and commercial maritime industry for taking safety management to a completely new level, overcoming the hurdles faced with ships sailing in the middle of oceans around the world,” said Vice Admiral Bill Burke (ret.), chief maritime officer for Carnival Corporation. “With our new operations centers running our proprietary technology, both our ship and shore side teams have greater-than-ever ability to ensure we are operating at safety levels that far exceed industry standards. We can now also access and analyze data that can significantly increase the operational efficiency of our ships, which is another major benefit.”
The new system, dubbed “Neptune”, utilizes cloud-based technology from Microsoft and has been in use at the Carnival Maritime Fleet Operations Center (FOC) in Hamburg, Germany, as announced in October 2015. Carnival Corporation has been piloting the system with its European cruise line brands in Hamburg and Southampton, England. Building on the system’s success, Carnival says it will continue rolling out the system this year to ships sailing in the U.S. and Caribbean, through its Fleet Operation Centers in Miami and Seattle.
“The new Carnival Corporation FOCs will provide an additional layer of support, where the shorebased analytics system will automatically generate alerts to help provide support in addressing any potential safety or weather-related issues across the fleet,” Carnival said in a press release. “Moving forward, the system’s ability to process and analyze “big data” in real time will enable Carnival Corporation and its brands to do predictive analysis with the potential to further improve safety and operations.”
The world’s GPS system is vulnerable to hackers or terrorists who could use it to hijack ships, even commercial airliners, according to a frightening new study that exposes a huge potential hole in national security.
It is possible to take control of a sophisticated navigation system on board any ship, using a laptop, a small antenna and an electronic GPS “spoofer”, built for $3,000. Injecting spoofing signals into the GPS antenna’s makes it possible to control navigation systems. Applying these instruments could cause ships running aground, therewith shutting down harbours. Experts are very worried about the implications of GPS spoofing which were recently tested on a super yacht plying the Mediterranean.
By feeding counterfeit radio signals to the yacht, the researchers were able to drive the ship far off course, potentially take it into treacherous waters or even put it on a collision course with another ship. All the time, the ship’s GPS system reported that the vessel was calmly moving in a straight line, along its intended course. No alarms, no indication that anything was amiss. The attacks on the board system were repeated but the officers on the bridge remained absolutely unaware of any difference. They were stunned by the results.
As the accident with the ”Costa Concordia” tragically proved, a ship off course can have disastrous consequences. Another example is the ”Exxon Valdez” which was only slightly of its intended track when it ran aground in Alaska, spilling 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound.
The easiest and most sinister “spoof” is to slowly slide a vessel onto a parallel course. Over time the compass might read the same heading but the ship could be far from where the navigator thinks it is. It is actually moving a mile off the intended track in a parallel line and could be running aground instead of going through the proper channel
The United States government is aware of this critical vulnerability of GPS. There have been more primitive experiments using a small unmanned drone. It was possible to feed “spoofing” signals into the drone’s GPS, causing it to nearly fall out of the sky. This experiment draw the attention of the US Congress, CIA and the Pentagon. Yet the Department of Homeland Security has been “fumbling around in the dark” on GPS security, doing little to address the threat. It has no jurisdiction over this issue and is not really showing any interest at all. However a number of Congressmen see it as a very serious and critical threat to national security. A draft report was due in August 2013, which could, depending on the results, trigger more Congressional hearings.
The GPS signals are the same as used by shipping all over the world. CESMA has been warning for the vulnerability of GPS on many occasions. Present electronic navigation and time keeping devices are all depending on GPS signals, in principle provided by the military department in the USA. Although there are signs that the international community is considering the importance of a backup system, no direct steps are taken yet. In a number of EU nations the existing LORAN stations were shut down to reduce costs. In fact the more than expensive GALILEO system was said to be able to replace the LORAN system, not mentioning that in fact the GALILEO system is just as vulnerable as GPS because it uses the same weak signals which can easily be ”spoofed”. Pure wisdom is required to prevent this important security risk at sea, in the air and on land in the future.
(Based on Fox News)
MARITIME EVIDENCE GUIDELINES PUBLISHED GATHERING EVIDENCE
___________________________________________________________________________TThe Nautical Institute’s latest book Guidelines for Collecting Maritime Evidence is now available. The guide is intended for anyone at sea and onshore – master, crew and managers – who might need to handle material after a maritime incident that could be used as evidence for later legal proceedings or insurance claims.
It is designed to remove uncertainty from the task and therefore reduce the risk of seafarer criminalization. The book is a completely revised edition of The Nautical Institute's ”The Mariner’s Role in Collecting Evidence”. The scope has been broadened and the content updated to reflect the growing importance of electronic evidence. A state safety inspector, master, insurer, surveyor, lawyer and an arbitrator each describe evidence collection from their own point of view, explaining what material needs to be gathered and how it will be used. The book is accompanied by a separate Handbook that can be kept on board as a quick reference guide. Nautical Institute President Captain Duke Snider said, “This book should be required reading for all officers.”
The Guidelines are available at http://www.nautinst.org/pubs ; price: £45; ISBN: 978 1 906915 54 4.
CEREMONY IN TRIESTE ON THE MAIDEN VOYAGE OF THE “MAJESTIC PRINCESS”
In the Trieste City Hall, a small festival of the sea took place. It involved the city and the ship yard Fincantieri. It became a beautiful ceremony for greetings to the “Majestic Princess”, to her Master, Captain Dino Sagani, and the ship owner Carnival, by the officials of the city of Trieste.
On March 31st, during a Sea Festival of the City of Trieste and Fincantieri, the new cruise ship “Majestic Princess”, on her maiden voyage, berthed at the Maritime Station.. She was commanded by Captain Dino Sagani, a member of the local Nautical Institute, established since 1754.
In the morning in the Blue Room of the Municipality of Trieste, were protagonists, next to Mayor Roberto Dipiazza and Municipal Councillor for Economic Development and Tourism Maurizio Bucci, the President of the Shipping company Princess Cruises Mrs. Jan Swartz, the President of Carnival Corporation & Plc Micky Arison and the Master, Captain Dino Sagani, born in Trieste on 1970. Designers and officials of Fincantieri with past president Corrado Antonini, Mrs. Graziella Dussi "godmother" of the “Majestic Princess” (and mother of the commander Sagani). And also, the CEO of Trieste Passenger Terminal -TTP - Franco Napp, the President of the “Collegio di Trieste dei Patentati Capitani di L.C. & D.M.” (Trieste Association of Ship’s Masters & Chief Engineers), Captain Mario Carobolante, who presented to Captain Sagani, member of the above mentioned Masters’ Association, a special crest with dedication. Also present at the ceremony were Captain Sergio Redivo general secretary of the Masters’ Association and Captain Giorgio Ribaric, VicePresident of CESMA. Also present was the son of Capt. Joseph de Luyk, Commander of the passenger ship "Italia", first ship of the Princess fleet that sailed 50 years ago from the Maritime Station in Trieste, one of the first of the "love boat" era.
The Mayor, Roberto Dipiazza, welcomed all present, noting the joy of the opportunity to have the authorities of Princess Cruises present. He presented to the cruise ship the flag symbol of the city and the City Plates. Next President Swartz of Princess Cruises stressed that for his company it is "an honour to return to Trieste, a city that we always have in the heart when in 1967 one of our first ships left the port of Trieste". He further announced that ”three of our ships will soon be built at Fincantieri, just as big and beautiful as the ”Majestic Princess."
The Commander Dino Sagani then proudly announced: "These are the most beautiful days of my career. Bring a ship for the first time in my town has been a priceless emotion. Being a ship designed and built in Monfalcone, and the largest made by Fincantieri. symbol of a shipbuilding - said Sagani - that makes us envied by the world! So I take it with pride on my ship, worldwide, the flag of Trieste.
In late afternoon, Captain Dino Sagani, surprised everyone by making a smart sailing from the Maritime Station quay (the ship is 330 meters long and measures 143 tons). Instead of backing up to get out of the San Giusto basin and then turn around in open waters, as usual, the ship rotated 180 degrees in the narrow space of San Giusto basin, between the corner end of the quay and with her stern a few meters from the Molo Audace, without any tug assistance. All this was accompanied by the crackle of fireworks, by the applause of the crowd and a special siren, which greeted Trieste at 18 pm with an original melody, different from the tune on arrival. The ”Majestic Princess” will definitely leave the Mediterranean in the middle of May to her home port Shanghai, China, a recently discovered market in the cruise industry.